Gender Disparities in Ghana National Health Insurance Claims: An Econometric Analysis
Keywords:, National Health Insurance, Claims, Gender Disparity, Ghana
AbstractThe objective of this study was to find out the gender disparities in Ghana national health insurance claims. In this work, data was collected from the policyholders of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme with the help of the National Health Insurance database and the patients’ attendance register of the Koforidua Regional Hospital, from 1st January to 31st December 2011. The generalized linear regression (GLR) models and the SPSS version 17.0 were used for the analysis. Among men, the younger people prefer attending hospital for treatment as compared to their adult counterparts. In contrast to women, younger women favor attending hospital for treatment as compared to their adult counterparts. Among men, various levels of income impact greatly on their propensity to make an insurance claim, whereas among women only the highest income level did as compared to lowest income level.Men, who completed senior high school education, were less likely to make an insurance claim as compared to their counterparts with basic or no education. However it was women who had basic education that preferred using the hospital as compared to their more educated counterparts. It is suggested that the government should consider building more health centers, clinics and cheap-compounds in at least every community, to help reduce the travel time in accessing health care. The ministry of health and the Ghana health service should engage older citizens by encouraging them to use hospitals when they are sick instead of other alternative care providers.
Akosa, A.B. (2001) “Financing health care in Ghana: A case of open, honest and dispassionate debate”. Daily Graphic, Saturday, February 17, 2001, p 9.
Annual Report (20012) Dangbe West Health Insurance Scheme.
Anthony, Adofo Ofosu. (May, 26 2005). Health Insurance in view. Daily Graphic, p.7
Apt, N.A. (1975) Urbanisation and the aged. In C. OPPONG (ed.) Changing family studies. Accra: Institute of African Studies, Legon Family Research Papers (3).
Apt, N.A. (1996) coping with old age in a changing Africa: Social change and the elderly Ghanaian. Aldershot: Avebury.
Apter, D.E. (1972) Ghana in transition. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Arodiogbu I.L. (2005). Introducing Social Health Insurance to Solve problems of poor health Sector in Nigeria. MA Thesis. University of Leeds.
Arhin D.C. (1994) the health care insurance scheme in Burundi: A social asset or a non-viable venture? Soc Sc Med 39 (6): 861-870.
Arhin D.C. (1995) rural health insurance: A viable alternative to user-charges, a review and evidence from three developing countries. London: LSHTM PHP Departmental Publication.
Arhin, K. (1994) the economic implications of transformations in Akan funeral rituals. Africa 64 (3): 307-322.
Arhin-Tenkorang, D. (2001) Health insurance for the informal sector in Africa: Design features, risk protection and resource mobilization. Washington DC: CMH Working Paper Series, WG 3.
Arhinful, D.K. (2001) “We think of them.” How Ghanaian migrants in Amsterdam assist relatives at home. Leiden: African Studies Centre.
Asenso-Okyere, W. K., Osei-Akoto, I., Anum, A., & Appih, E.N. (1997). Willingness to pay for Health Insurance in a Developing Economy. A Pilot Study of The Informal Sector of Ghana using Contingent Valuation. Health Policy, 42(3), 223-237.
Assenso-Okyere, W.K. (1995) Financing health care in Ghana. World Health Forum 16: 86-91.
Carrin, G. (2002). Social Health Insurance in Developing Countries: A Continuing Challenge. International Social Security Review, 55(2), 57-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-246X.00124
Carrin, G., & James, C. (2005). Social Health Insurance: Key Factors Affecting the Transition towards Universal Coverage. International Social Security Review, 58(1), 45-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-246X.2005.00209.x
Government of Ghana, MoH (2003). National Health Insurance Bill. http://www.ghana.gov.gh/pbcopin/ nhib.bdf. Accessed 12.04.2012.
Griffen, C.C. & R.P. Shaw (1996) Health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa: Aims, findings & policy implications. In R.P. Shaw & M. Ainsworth (eds.) financing health services through user fees and insurance: case studies from sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Hussey P., Anderson G.F. (2003). A comparison of Single payer and multiple payer health insurance systems and options for reform. Health Policy, 66:215-228.
National Health Insurance Act, 2003. Ghana.
National Health Insurance Regulation (2004) Ghana.
Osius G, Rojek D, 1992. Normal goodness-of-fit tests for multinomial models with large degrees of freedom. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 87 (Suppl 420): 1145–1152.
Su JQ, Wei LJ, 1991. A lack-of-fit test for the mean function in a generalized linear model. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 86 (Suppl 414): 420–426.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).