Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Influencing Employee Motivation: Lessons from AMREF Health Africa in Kenya


  • Caroline Njambi Gicheru Amref Health Africa in Kenya Programs Administrator




Motivation, Performance, Extrinsic, Intrinsic, Kenya, AMREF, Organization


The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that influence employee motivation in Kenyan Organizations. The study was guided by the following research questions: (i) what are the extrinsic factors that influence employee motivation in AMREF Health Africa in Kenya? (ii) what intrinsic factors influence employee motivation in AMREF Health Africa in Kenya? A descriptive research design was adopted. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw a sample size of 96 respondents. The data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire developed by the researchers.  A set of descriptive and correlation statistics were adopted for analysis. The study identified several intrinsic factors that influence employee motivation. These included employee achievements, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement, salary structure, the level to which the employees feel appreciated, and the employee perception of their jobs among other factors. The study further, established that the intrinsic factors that influence employee motivation include empowerment and autonomy, employees’ view of their work, organization trust, skill variety requirements among others. The study recommends that the organization should acknowledge and make use of a proper mix of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in their human resource management practices to ensure that employees are well motivated to perform their tasks.

Author Biography




Abadi, F. E., Jalilvand, M. R., Sharif, M., Salimi, G. A., & Khanzadeh, S. A. (2011). A Study of Influential Factors on Employees’ Motivation for Participating in the In-Service Training Courses Based on Modified Expectancy Theory. International Business and Management, 2 (1), 157-169.

Amrstrong, M. (2011) A Hand of Human Resource Management Practice (11th Edition). Kogan Page: London

Annamalai, T., Abdullah, A. G. K., & Alasidiyeen, N. J., (2010).The Mediating Effects of Perceived Organizational Support on the Relationships between Organizational Justice, Trust and Performance Appraisal in Malaysian Secondary Schools. European Journal of Social Sciences, 13 (4), 623-632.

Cheng, L.L. (ed.) (1995), Integrating Language and Learning for Inclusion: An Asian Pacific Focus. San Diego and London: Singular Publishing.

Chiang, C.F., & Jang, S.C. (2008). An expectancy theory model for hotel employee motivation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27: 313-322.

Chintaloo, J. & Mahadeo D. (2013) Effect of Motivation on Employees’ Work Performance at Ireland Blyth Limited. Proceedings of 8th Annual London Busin8ess Research Conference Imperial College, London, UK, 8 - 9 July ISBN: 978-1-922069-28-3

Daft R. L., (2009). Organization Theory and Design. Cengage Learning, Inc.

Drucker, P. (1974), Management, Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. New York: Harper and Row Publishers.

Elliot, A., & Zahn, I. (2008). Motivation. In: N. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational psychology. (pp. 687-693). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Fisher, D. M. (2012). Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: Implications for implicit coordination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(4), 825-841.

Gautam, M.; Mandal, K., & Dalal, R.S. (2006). Job satisfaction of faculty members of veterinary sciences: an analysis. Livestock Research for Rural Development 18 (7).

Grant, A. M., Fried, Y., & Juillerat, T. (2010). Work matters: Job design in classic and contemporary perspectives. Forthcoming in S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Guay, F (2010). Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 711–735.

Gurland, S. T., & Lam, C. F. (2008). Self-determined work motivation predicts job outcomes, but what predicts self-determined work motivation? Journal of world. (pp. 1161-1162). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Hays, W.L. (1988), Statistics, 4th Edn. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Herzberg, F. (1959) The motivation to work, New York: John

Hussin A. B. (2011). The relationship between job satisfaction and job satisfaction and job performance. Centre for graduate studies; Open university Malaysia.

Irons, J., & Buskist, W. (2008). Operant Conditioning. In S. Davis, & W. Buskist (Ed.), 21st Century psychology: a reference handbook. (pp. 1-329-1-340). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Karatepe, M.O. & Uludag, O. (2007) Conflict, Exhaustion and Motivation: A Study of Frontline Employees in Northern Cyprus Hotels. Hospitality Management, Vol 26: 645-665.

Kamalian, A. R., Yaghoubi, N. M., & Moloudi, J., (2010) Survey of Relationship between Organizational Justice and Empowerment (A Case Study). European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 24, 165-171.

Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (2007). New developments in and directions for goal- setting research. European Psychologist, 12(4), 290-300.

Liebler, J.G. and McConnell, C. R. (2004). Management Principles for Health Professionals (4th Edition). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.

Lunenburg, F. & Ornstein, A. (2008). Educational administration: Concepts and practices. 5th Edition. Belmont CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Mathis, R.L. & Jackson, J.H. (2008). Human resource management. 12th Edition. Singerpore: Thomson Learning Academic.

Mudor, H. & Tooksoon, P. (2011). “Conceptual Framework on the Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices, Job Satisfaction and Turnover”, Journal of Economics & Behavioural Studies. Vol. 2(2): pp. 41 – 49.

Nyambegera, S.M.; Sparrow, P. & Daniels, K. (2000), The Impact of Cultural Value Orientations on Individual HRM Preferences in Developing Countries: Lessons from Kenyan Organizations, International Journal of Human Resources Management, Vol. 11(4):639-663.

Ran, B. (2009). Motivation. In C. Wankel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of business in today’s Research in Personality, 42(4), 1109-1115.

Rukhmani, K., Ramesh, M., & Jayakrishnan, J., (2010). Effect of Leadership Styles on Organizational Effectiveness. European Journal of Social Sciences, 15 (3), 365-369.

Santrock, J. (2009). (4th ed.) Educational Psychology. New York, NY: McGrawhill

Sisk, D. (2009). Achievement motivation. In B. Kerr (Ed.), Encyclopedia of giftedness, creativity, and talent. (pp. 13-16). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Whittaker, C. (2008). Hotel operator motives in UK sale and leaseback/management-back transactions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27 (4): 641-648.