Leadership and the Church: The Impact of Shifting Leadership Constructs
Keywords:Charismatic leadership, church leadership, leadership case study, transformational leadership.
The idea of leadership has been examined for millennia. Examples of leadership in action go back to Moses from the Bible and Xenophón from Greek history. One of the key theories in early leadership is that of charismatic leadership. Although most scholars agree that a key concept of charismatic leadership is that of follower attribution, defining boundaries for charismatic is as difficult as defining leadership itself. This difficulty is accentuated in this work because of the shifting organizational structures and follower perceptions. The case details follower attributed charismatic leadership traits, and then provides a robust discussion on the impact of shifting organizational constructs.
Alvesson, M. (1996). Leadership studies: From procedure and abstraction to reflexivity and situation. Leadership Quarterly, 7(4), 455-485.
Antonakis, J. (2012). Transformational and charismatic leadership. In David Day & J. Antonakis (Eds.), The Nature of Leadership (2nd ed.) (pp. 256-288). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Bass, B. M. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. (4th ed.). New York: Free Press
Beyer, J. M. (1999A). Two approaches to studying charismatic leadership: competing or complementary? Leadership Quarterly, 10(4), 575-588.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
Choi, J. (2006). A motivational theory of charismatic leadership: Envisioning, empathy, and empowerment. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13(1), 24-43.
Conger, J. A. (1989). The Charismatic Leader. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Conger, J. A. & Kanungo, R. N. (1987). Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational setting. Academy of Management Review, 12(4), 637-647.
-------- (1994). Charismatic leadership in organizations: Perceived behavioral attributes and their measurement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(5), 439-452.
Conger, J. A., Kanungo, R. N., & Menon, S. T. (2000). Charismatic leadership and follower effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 747-767.
Dinh, J. E., Lord, R. G., Gardner, W. L., Meuser, J. D., Liden, R. C., & Hu, J. (2014). Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: Current theoretical trends and changing perspectives. Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 36-62.
Dow, T. E., (1969). The theory of charisma. Sociological Quarterly, 10, 306-318.
Dulebohn, J. H., Bommer, W. H., Liden, R. C., Brouer, R. L., & Ferris, G. R. (2012). A meta-analysis of Antecedents and Consequences of leader-member exchange: Integrating the past with an eye toward the future. Journal of Management, 38, 1715-1759.
Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 29-247.
Guillén, L., & Ibara, H. (2010). Seasons of a leader’s development: Beyond a one-size fits all approach to designing interventions. Retrieved from http://www.insead.edu/ facultyresearch/research/doc.cfm?did=43958 on October 10, 2014.
Hollander, E. P., & Julian, J. W. (1969). Contemporary trends in the analysis of leadership processes. Psychological Bulletin, 71(5), 387-397.
House, R. J. (1977). A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In J. G. Hunt & L.L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership: The cutting edge (pp. 189-207). Carbondale, Il: Southern Illinois University.
House, R. J., & Howell, J. M. (1992). Personality and charismatic leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 3, 81-108.
Howell, J. M. (1985). A laboratory study of charismatic leadership? (Working Paper No. 85-35). London, ON: School of Business Administration, University of Western Ontario.
--------- (1988). Two faces of charisma: Socialized and personalized leadership in organizations. In J. A. Conger & R. N. Kanungo (Eds.), Charismatic leadership: The elusive factor in organizational effectiveness (pp. 213-236). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Howell, J. M., & Shamir, B. (2005). The role of followers in charismatic leadership process: Relationships and their consequences. Academy of Management Review, 30, 96-112.
Kelly, S. (2008). Leadership: A categorical mistake? Human Relations, 61(6), 763-782.
Lorsch, J. (2008). A contingency theory of leadership. Retrieved from peoplelearn.homestead.com/contingency2.pdf on November 12, 2014.
Meindl, J. R. (1990). On leadership: An alternative to the conventional wisdom. In B. M. Staw & L.L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 12, pp. 159-203). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and practice (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage
--------- (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage
Oberg, W. (1972). Making performance appraisal relevant. Harvard Business Review, 50(1), 61-67.
Rachman, A. W. (2003). Issues of power, control, and status in group interaction: From Ferenczi to Foucault. Group, 27(2/3), 89-105.
Rowe, W. G. (2007). Cases in Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4(4), 577-594.
Shamir, B., & Eilam, G. (2005). “What’s your story?” A life-stories approach to authentic leadership development. Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 395-417.
Shils, E. (1965). Charisma, order, and status. American Sociological Review, 30, 99-213.
Smith, P. (2000). Culture and charisma: outline of a theory. Acta Sociologica, 43(2), 101-111.
Stake, J. E. (1978). Motives for occupational goal setting among male and female college students. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(5), 617-622.
Stentz, J. E., Plano, C., & Matkin, G. S. (2012). Applying mixed methods to leadership research: A review of current practices. Leadership Quarterly, 23(6), 1173-1183.
Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of the literature. New York: Free Press.
Vroom, V. H. (1976). Leadership. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 1527-1551). Chicago: Rand McNally.
Weber, M. (1922/1978). Economy and society. (G. Roth & C. Wittich, Eds.). Oakland, CA: University of California Press.
-------- (1946). Essays in Sociology (Hans Gerth & C. W. Mills, Eds. and Trans.). New York: Oxford University Press.
-------- (1947). The theory of social and economic organizations (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Eds. And Trans.). Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Willner, A. R. (1984). The Spellbinders. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Yukl, G. (1989). Managerial leadership: A review of theory and research. Journal of Management, 15(2), 251-289.
Zehndorefer, E. (2014). Leadership: A critical introduction. NYC, NY: Rutledge.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).