Information Sharing, Cooperative Behaviour and Hotel Performance: A Survey of the Kenyan Hospitality Industry
Keywords:Co-operative behavior, information sharing, Kenyan hospitality industry, supply chain collaboration.
AbstractInformation sharing is the life blood of supply chain collaboration. Its role in achieving operational performance of supply chains has been widely acclaimed. However whether information sharing would result in improved performance in the context of the hospitality industry has not been empirically determined. This study sought to find out the role of information sharing on hotel performance when the relationship was mediated by cooperative behaviour. A survey design was employed where proportionate stratified sampling was used to select 50 out of 57 town hotels. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires as well interview guides to the procurement\supply chain departments of these hotels. Logarithmic transformations were used in conjunction with multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship between information sharing, cooperative behaviour and hotel performance. The study concludes that information sharing in the Kenyan hospitality industry does not directly relate to hotel performance. Its relationship is mediated by cooperative behaviour (trust and attitude) with supply chain partners. This suggests that information sharing is essential but insufficient by itself to bring significant performance improvements in hotels in the Kenyan hospitality industry. A possible reason for this is that this collaborative practice is highly dependent on information sharing capability, structure of the information as well as culture. Through quadrant analysis the study identifies and recommends the sharing of information about long term strategic plans and events such as entering new markets and acquiring a new customer base as an area of primary priority for improvement.
Abade, T. (2011). A survey of Contract manufacturing as a collaborative supply chain process: Case study of selected firms in Kenya. Unpublished thesis. University of Nairobi.
Akama, J. S. (1999). The evolution of tourism in Kenya. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7(1), 6– 24.
Allred, B.B, Snow, C.C., & Miles, R.E (1996). Characteristics of managerial careers in the 21st century. Academy of Management Executive, 10 (34), 17-27.
Barratt, M. (2004). Understanding the meaning of collaboration in the supply chain. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 9(1), 30-42.
Barney, J. B. (1995). Looking inside for competitive advantage. Academy of Management Executive, 9 (4), 49-61.
Bland, M., & Altman, G. (1997). Statistics notes: Cronbach’s alpha. British Medical Journal, 314,572
Cachon, G. and Fisher, M. (1997). Campbell Soup’s continuous product replenishment program: evaluation and enhanced decision rules. Production & Operations Management, 6(3), 266-76.
Cachon, G.P. and Fisher, M. (2000). Supply chain inventory management and value of shared information. Management Science, 46(8), 1032-48.
Cadilhon, J.J., Fearne, A.P., Tam, P.T.G., Moustier, P., & Poole, N.D. (2005). Collaborative commerce or just common sense? Supply Chain Management: An International Journal. 10 (3), 147–149.
Cannon, J.P., & Perreault, W.D. Jr (1999). Buyer-seller relationships in business markets. Journal of Marketing Research, 36 (4), 439-60.
Clark, T. and Hammond, J. (1997). Reengineering channel reordering processes to improve total supply chain performance. Production & Operations Management, 6(3), 248-65.
Chatﬁeld, D.C., Kim, J.G., Harrison, T.P. and Hayya, J.C. (2004). The bullwhip effect: impact of stochastic lead time, information quality, and information sharing: a simulation study. Production & Operations Management, 13(4), 340-53.
Chiles, T.H, & McMackin, J.F (1996). Integrating variable risk preferences, trust, and transaction cost economics. Academy of Management Review, 21 (1), 73-99.
Cecere, L. (2014, September). Seven Characteristics of Supply Chains to Admire. Retrieved August 20, 2015, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/loracecere/2014/09/21/seven-Characteristics-Of-Supply-Chains-To-Admire/.
Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(1), 297-334.
Day, G.S. (2000), “Managing market relationships”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1),24‐30.
De Toni, A. and Tonchia, S. (2001). Performance measurement systems models, characteristics and measures. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(1), 46-70.
Doney, P.M. & J.P. Cannon (1997). An examination of the nature of Trust in Buyer-Seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 61(2), 35-51.
Drucker, P.F. (1969).Management’s new role. Harvard Business Review, 47(6), 49-54.
Drucker, P.F. (1994).The theory of the business. Harvard Business Review, 72(5), 95-104.
Easton, R.J., Brown, R.H., & Armitage, D. (1999). Translating supply chain strategies into action. Supply Chain Management Review,1(1), 3-7.
Fearne, A., Barrow, S., & Schulenberg, D. (2006). Implanting the benefits of buyer-supplier collaboration in the soft fruit sector. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 11(1), 3-5.
Field, A. (2000). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows. London, SAGE Publications.
Forrester, R., & Drexler, A.B. (1999). A model for team-based organization performance. Academy of Management Executive, 13 (3), 36-49.
Forslund, H. (2007). Measuring information quality in the order fulfillment process. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 24 (5), 515-24.
Frohlich, M.T. & Westbrook, R. (2001). Arcs of integration: an international study of supply chain strategies. Journal of Operations Management, 19 (2), 185-200.
Ganesan, S. (1994). Determinants of long‐term orientation in buyer‐seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 58(2), 1‐19.
Gosain, S., Malhotra, A., & El Sawy, O.A. (2004). Coordinating for flexibility in e-business supply chains. Journal of Management Information Systems, 21(3), 7-45.
Government of Kenya [GoK]. (2013). Economic Survey 2013. Nairobi: Government Printer
Grönroos, C. (2000). Service Management and Marketing: A Customer Relationship Management Approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Håkansson, H., & Snehota, I. (1995). Developing Relationships in Business Networks. London: Routledge.
Hammer, M. (1990). Reengineering work: don’t automate, obliterate. Harvard Business Review, 68 (4), 104-13.
Handfield, R.B., & Nichols, E.L. (1999). Introduction to Supply Chain Management. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.
Heide, J.B., & John, G. (1990). Alliances in industrial purchasing: the determinants of joint action in buyer-supplier relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 27(1) , 24-36.
Hult, G.T.M., Ketchen, D.J. Jr and Slater, S.F. (2004), “Information processing, knowledge development, and strategic supply chain performance”, Academy of Management Journal, 47(2), 241-54.
Jick, T.D. (1992). Customer-supplier partnerships: human resources as bridge builders. Human Resource Management, 29 (4), 435-54.
Jones, C., Hesterly, W.S., & Borgatti, S.P. (1997). A general theory of network governance: exchange conditions and social mechanisims. The Academy of Management Review, 22 (4), 911-45.
Jubilee Manifesto. (2012). “Transforming Kenya: Securing Kenya’s Prosperity 2013-17” Shared Manifesto of the Coalition between The National Alliance, TNA, The United Republican party URP, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) and the Republican Congress Party (RC).
Kamau, W. S., & Waudo, J. (2012).Hospitality Industry, Employers’ Expectation of Employees’ Competence in Nairobi Hotels. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism, 3(4), 55-63.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2014). Kenya Facts and figures 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2014, from www.knbs.or.ke.
Kulp, S.C., Lee, H.L. and Ofek, E. (2004). Manufacturer beneﬁts from information integration with retail customers. Management Science, 50(4), 431-44.
Lee, H.L., So, K.C. and Tang, C.S. (2000). The value of information sharing in a two-level supply chain. Management Science, 46 (5), 626-43.
Lehtonen, T. (2006). Collaborative Relationships in facility services. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27 (6), 449-464
Li, L. (2002).Information sharing in a supply chain with horizontal competition. Management Science, 48(9), 1196-212.
Malhotra, A., Gosain, S., & Sawy, O.A. (2005). Absorptive capacity configurations in supply chains: gearing for partner-enabled market knowledge creation. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 145-87.
Matopoulos, A., Vlachopoulou, M., Manthou, V., & Manos, B. (2007). A conceptual framework for supply chain collaboration: empirical evidence from the agri-food industry. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 12 (3),177-86.
Mayer, R.C., Davis, J.H., & Schoorman, F.D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. The Academy of Management Review, 20 (3), 709-34.
McCole, P. (2002).The Role of Trust for Electronic Commerce in Services. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 14(2), 81-87.
Meler, M., & Cerovic, Z., (2003). Food marketing in the function of tourist product development. British Food Journal, 105 (3) , 175 – 192.
Min, S., Roath, A.S., Daugherty, P. J., Genchev ,S.E., Chen, H., Arndt, A. D., & Richey, R. G. (2005). Supply chain collaboration: what’s happening? The International Journal of Logistics Management, 16(2), 237-256.
Monczka, R.M., Petersen, K.J., Handifield, R.B., & Ragatz, G.I. (1998).Success factors in strategic supplier alliances: the buying company perspective. Decision Sciences Journal, 29(3), 533-78.
Moorman, C., Deshpande, R. & Zaltman, G. (1993). Factor affecting trust in market research relationships. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 81-101.
Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20-38.
Nadiri, H., & Hussain, K. (2005). Diagnosing the zone of tolerance for hotel services. Managing Service Quality, 15(3), 259-77.
Nabukewa, J., & Mgidu, C. (2015). Kenya's tourism hit hard by travel warnings from Western countries. Retrieved April 5th, 2015, from www.hiiraan.com/news4/2015/Mar/98842/kenya_s_tourism_hit_hard_by_travel_warnings_from_western_countries.aspx
Nyaga, G.N., Whipple, J.M., & Lynch, D.F. (2010). Examining supply chain relationships: do buyer and supplier perspectives on collaborative relationships differ? Journal of Operations Management, 28 (2), 101-14.
Njiraini,P., Mwongera, N., Kiarie, S., & Wang’ombe, H. (2015). Assessment of Kenya’s Tourism Source Markets. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, DOI: 10.1080/10548408.2014.956919. Published online: 16 Apr 2015.
Odunga, P. O., & Folmer, H. (2004). Profiling tourists for balanced utilization of tourism-based resources in Kenya. FEEM Working Paper No. 23.2004. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=504443
Ondicho, T. G. (2000). International tourism in Kenya: Development, problems and challenges. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 16(2), 49–70.
Ottenbacher, M., Harrington, R., &Parsa, H.G. (2009). Defining the hospitality discipline: A discussion of Pedagogical and Research Implications. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 33(3), 263-283.DOI: 10.1177/1096348009338675.
Raghunathan, S. (2001). Information Sharing in a Supply Chain: A Note on its Value when Demand Is Nonstationary. Management Science, 47(4), 605-610.
Ramsaran-Fowdar, R.R. (2007). Developing a service quality questionnaire for the hotel industry in Mauritius. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 13 (1), 19-27.
Rossin, D. (2007). An exploratory analysis of information quality in supply chains: efficient and responsive models. Journal of Global Business Issues, 1(2), 151-8.
Sako, M. (1992). Prices, Quality and Trust – Inter-firm Relationships in Britain and Japan. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Siguaw, J.A., Simpson, P.M., & Baker, T.L. (1998).Effects of supplier market orientation on distributor market orientation and the channel relationship: the distributor perspective. Journal of Marketing, 62(3), 99-111.
Simatupang, T.M., & Sridharan, R. (2002). The Collaborative Supply Chain. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 13(1), 15-30.
Simatupang, T.M., & Sridharan R. (2005b). An integrative framework for supply chain collaboration. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 16(2), 257-274.
Stein, T., & Sweat, J. (1998). Killer supply chains. InformationWeek, 708 (9), 36–46.
Svensson, G. (2001).Perceived Trust towards Suppliers and Customers in Supply Chains of the Swedish Automotive Industry. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 31(9), 635-650.
Swan, J. E., & Trawick, I. F. (1987). Building Customer Trust in the Industrial Salesperson: Process and Outcomes. Advances in Business Marketing, 2, 81-113.
Valle, E., & Yobesia, M.N.(2009). Economic contribution of tourism in Kenya. Tourism Analysis, 14(3), 401-414
Van der Vaart, J.T. & Van Donk, D.P. (2008). A critical review of survey-based research in supply chain integration. International Journal of Production Economics, 111 (1), 42-55.
Van Riel, A.C.R., Lemmink, J., Streukens, S., and Liljander, V. (2004). Boost customer loyalty with online support: The case of mobile telecoms providers. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, 1(1), 4-23.
Van-Teijlingen, E.R., & Hundley, V. (2001). The Importance of Pilot studies (online), Social research update, issue no. 35.
VanVoorhis, C. R.W., & Morgan, B.L. (2007). Understanding Power and Rules of Thumb for Determining Sample Sizes. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 3(2), 43‐50.
United Nations World Tourism Organization [UNWTO]. (2012). Compendium of tourism statistics data 2009–2013. Madrid.
Wetherbe, J.C (1995). Principles of cycle time reduction: you can have your cake and eat it too. Cycle Time Research, 1 (1), 1-24.
Yamane, Taro (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed., New York: Harper and Row.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).