Antecedents of Online Word-of-Mouth and Memorable Experience Concept

Iivi Riivits-Arkonsuo, Anu Leppiman


This study aims to examine the antecedents of brand-related online word-of-mouth (WOM) communication from the memorable experience concept perspective. This paper considers the factors that are behind the willingness to participate in brand-consumer interaction when passing on messages, generating content, and sharing online communication. The study is built on complementary sources of information, employing a mixed methods approach. The results show that sharing and generating positive online communication involves reciprocal patterns, while a memorable experience, good brand experience, and interaction in value co-creation drive willingness to help the brand. The gratitude-related reciprocal online behaviour is a “virtual praise”. The findings provide insight into how meaningful experience, interaction in value co-creation, and reciprocity, which are the key concepts of experience marketing, cause and have an impact on sharing online communication. From a theoretical viewpoint, this study offers insights into the links between constructs of meaningful experience concepts and brand-related online communication. Understanding the experiential aspects of consumers' online behaviour, such as willingness to co-create value together with brands, offers an implication for marketing management.


Gratitude, memorable brand experience, online word-of-mouth (WOM), reciprocity, value co-creation.

Full Text:



Akaka, M. A., Vargo, S.L., & Lusch, R.F. (2012). An exploration of networks in value co-creation: A service-ecosystems view. In S.L.Vargo and R.F.Lusch (Eds), Toward a Better Understanding of the Role of Value in Markets and Marketing, 13-50.

Becker, Lawrence C. (1986). Reciprocity. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Blazevic, V., Hammedi, W., Garnefeld, I., Rust, R.T., Keiningham, T., Andreassen, T. W., Donthu, N., & Carl, W. (2013). Beyond traditional word-of-mouth: an expanded model of customer-driven influence. Journal of Service Management, 24 (3), 294-313.

Brakus, J. J., Schmitt, B.H., & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand experience: what is it? How is it measured? Does it affect Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73 (3), 52–68.

Brown, J., Broderick, A.J, & Lee, N. (2007). Word of mouth communication within online communities: conceptualizing the online social network. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21 (3), 2-20.

Bruner, G. C., James, K.E., & Hensel, P.J. (2001). Marketing scales handbook. Vol. 3: A compilation of multi-item measures, Chicago: American Marketing Association.

Chakrabarti, R., & Pierre Berthon. P. (2012). Gift giving and social emotions: experience as content. Journal of Public Affairs, 12, (2), 154-161.

Chu, S.-C. (2011). Viral Advertising in Social Media: Participation in Facebook groups and responses among college aged users. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 12 (1), 30-43.

Chu, S.-C., & Kim, Y. (2011). Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites. International Journal of Advertising, 30(1), 47-75.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, (4thEdition), Los Angeles (Calif.): SAGE Publications.

Diffley, S., Kearns, J., Bennett, W., & Kawalek P. (2011). Consumer behavior in social networking sites: implications for marketers. Irish Journal of Management, 30 (2), 47-65.

Duncan, T., & Moriarty. S. (2006). How integrated marketing communication’s “touchpoints” can operationalize the service dominant logic”, In R.F.Lusch and S.L.Vargo (Eds.), The service-dominant logic of marketing: dialog, debate and directions (pp.236-243). Armonk, NY: M.E.Sharpe

Echeverri, P., & Skalen, P. (2011). Co-creation and co-destruction: a practice-theory based study of interactive value formation. Marketing Theory, 11 (3), 351-370.

Falk, A., & Fischbacher, U. (2006). A Theory of reciprocity. Games and economic behavior, 54, 293-315.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: Sage Publication Ltd.

Gelter, H. (2007). Towards an understanding of experience production, In M. Kylänen (Ed.), Articles on Experiences 4: Digital Media & Games (pp.28-50). Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Grönroos, C. (2008). Service logic revisited: who creates value? And who co‐creates? European Business Review, 20 (4), 298 – 314.

Grönroos, C., & Voima, P. (2013). Critical service logic: making sense of value creation and co-creation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41, 133-150.

Hennig-Thurau, T., Gwinner, K.P., Walsh, G., & Gremler, D.D. (2004). Electronic word-of-mouth via consumer-opinion platforms: what motivates consumers to articulate themselves on the Internet? Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18 (1), 38-52.

Hennig-Thurau, T., Malthouse, E.C., Friege, C., Gensler, S., Lobschat, L., Rangaswamy, A., & Skiera B. (2010).The impact of new media on customer relationships. Journal of Service Research, 13 (3), 311-330.

Holbrook, M. B. (2006). Consumption experience, customer value, and subjective personal introspection: an illustrative photographic essay. Journal of Business Research, 59, 714-725.

Jensen, J. F. (2013). IT and experience: user experience, experience design and user-experience design. In: J. Sundbo and F. Sørensen (Eds.), Handbook on the Experience Economy (pp. 179-208). Cheltenham, Northampton (Mass.): Edward Elgar Publishing.

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2011). Two hearts in three-quarter time: How to waltz the social media/viral marketing dance. Business Horizons, 54 (3), 253-263.

Keller, E. (2007). Unleashing the power of word of mouth: creating brand advocacy to drive growth. Journal of Advertising Research, 4, 448-452.

Kietzmann, J. H., Silvestre, B.S., McCarthy, I.P., & Pitt, L.F. (2012). Unpacking the social media phenomenon: towards a research agenda. Journal of Public Affairs, 12 (2), 109-119.

Kozinets, R. V., De Valck, K., Wojnicki, A, C., & Wilner, S.J.S. (2010). Networked narratives: understanding word-of-mouth marketing in online communities. Journal of Marketing, 74 (2), 71-89.

Lang, B., & Hyde, K.F. (2013). Word of mouth: what we know and what we have yet to learn. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction & Complaining Behavior, 26, 1-18.

Leppiman, A. (2010). Arjen elämyksiä – leiri- ja elämyspohjainen arkipäivät-perhepalvelu sosiaalisen kokemuksen tuottajana [Everyday experiences: camp- and experience-based weekdays family service as a producer of social experience]. Rovaniemi: Lapland University Press.

Liang, S. W.J., Ekinci, Y., Occhiocupo, N., & Whyatt, G. (2013). Antecedents of travellers’ electronic word-of-mouth communication. Journal of Marketing Management, 29 (5-6), 584-606.

Lovett, M., J., Peres, R., & Shachar, R. (2013). On brands and word of Mouth. Journal of Marketing Research, 50, 427-444.

Matos, C. A., & Rossi, C.A.V. (2008). Word-of-mouth communications in marketing: a meta-analytic review of the antecedents and moderators. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36 (4), 578-596.

Mayring, P. (1999). Einführung in die Qualitative Sozialforschung [Introduction to Qualitative Social Research], Weinheim: Beltz/PVU.

McColl-Kennedy, J. R., Vargo, S. L., Dagger, T.S., Sweeney J.C., & van Kasteren, Y. (2012). Health care customer value co-creation practice styles. Journal of Service Research. 15 (4), 370-389.

Merz, M., He, Y., & Vargo, S. L. (2009). The evolving brand logic: a service-dominant logic perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(3), 328-344.

Minkiewicz, J., Evans, J., & Bridson, K. (2014). How do consumers co-create their experiences? An exploration in the heritage sector. Journal of Marketing Management, 30 (1-2), 30-59.

Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social Research Methods, (2nd Edition.), Allyn and Bacon: Boston, MA.

Palmatier, R. W., Jarvis, C.B, Bechkoff, J.R., & Kardes, F.R. (2009). The role of customer gratitude in relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 73 (9), 1–18.

Pine, J., & Gilmore, J. (1999). The experience economy and every business a stage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Pongsakornrungsilp, S., & Schroeder, J.E. (2011). Understanding value co-creation in a co-consuming brand community. Marketing Theory, 11 (3), 303-324.

Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co‐creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5–14.

Raggio, R.D., Walz, A.M, Godbole, M.B., & Garretson Folse, J.A. (2014). Gratitude in relationship marketing: theoretical development and directions for future research. Marketing Faculty Publications. Paper 13,, retrieved 10 January 2015.

Riivits-Arkonsuo I., Kaljund, K. & Leppiman, A. (2014). Consumer journey from first experience to brand evangelism. Research in Economics and Business: Central and Eastern Europe, 6(1), 5-28.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67.

Schmitt, B. (2010). Experience marketing: concepts, frameworks and consumer insights. Foundations and Trends in Marketing, 5 (2), 55–112.

Skakeby, J. (2010). Gift-giving as a conceptual framework: framing social behavior in online networks. Journal of Information Technology, 25, 170–177.

Söderlund, M., & Rosengren, S. (2007). Receiving word-of-mouth from the service customer: an emotion-based effectiveness assessment. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14 (2), 123-136.

Soscia, I. (2007). Gratitude, delight, or guilt: the role of consumers’ emotions in predicting postconsumption behaviors. Psychology & Marketing, 24 (10), 871-894.

Sundbo, J. & Sørensen, F. (2013). Introduction to the experience economy. In: J. Sundbo and F. Sørensen (Eds.), Handbook on the Experience Economy (pp. 1–17). Cheltenham, Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Toder-Alon, A, Brunel, F.F., & Fournier, S. (2014). Word-of-mouth rhetorics in social media talk. Journal of Marketing Communications, 20 (1-2), 42-64.

Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68 (1), 1-17.

Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2008). Service-dominant logic: continuing the evolution. Journal of the Academy of marketing Science, 36 (1), 1–10.

Zarantonello, L., & Schmitt, B.H. (2010). Using the brand experience scale to profile consumer and predict consumer behavior. Journal of Brand Management, 17 (7), 532-540.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Business and Social Research


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please forward your doc file to Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add  this domain in your email safe list.

International journal of business and social research (Print)
ISSN 2164-2540

International journal of business and social research (Online)
ISSN 2164-2559

[International Journal of Business and Social Research (IJBSR) previously published by MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, MD, USA. From February 2018 this journal is published by the LAR Center Press, OR, USA]