Valence and Efficacy: The Affective Meanings of Human Values and their Relationship to Moral Decisions
Keywords:Moral foundations theory, semantic differential, stereotype Content Model.
AbstractHuman values and value based judgments are not only based on rationality but are highly emotional by their nature. Like other emotional concepts, human values can not only be rated by their desirability or subjective evaluation, but also by their perceived power, effectiveness, or activity. This aspect has been omitted in previous research. We therefore employed the Semantic Differential to examine the factorial structure of the affective meanings of 15 German-language value terms. The demographically heterogeneous sample comprised N = 274 (N = 136 female; mean age 39.14 years, s = 18.35, range 16...88 years) Austrian and German respondents. In line with our expectations we found two affective dimensions, Valence and Efficacy, which predicted central aspects of value related moral or ethical judgments. We conclude that the previously neglected dimension of Efficacy should be considered in future research on human values. Possible implications for studying consumer decisions or political voting as well as ethical aspects are discussed.
Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1(2), 245-276.
Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E., Vecchione, M., & Schwartz, S. H. (2014). A hierarchical structure of basic human values in a third-order confirmatory factor analysis. Swiss Journal of Psychology/Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Revue Suisse de Psychologie, 73(3), 177-182.
Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., Kwan, V. S. Y., Glick, P., Demoulin, S., et al. (2009). Stereotype content model across cultures: toward universal similarities and some differences. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48(1), 1-33. doi: 10.1348/014466608X314935
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(2), 77-83. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2006.11.005
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878-902. doi: 10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1248
Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. A. (2009). Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(5), 1029-1046. doi: 10.1037/a0015141
Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108(4), 814-834. doi: 10.1037//0033-295X. 108.4.814
Haidt, J. (2013). Moral psychology for the twenty-first century. Journal of Moral Education, 42(3), 281-297. doi: 10.1080/03057240.2013.817327
Haidt, J., & Graham, J. (2007). When morality opposes justice: conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. Social Justice Research 20(1), 98-116. doi: 10.1007/s11211-007-0034-z
Haidt, J., & Joseph, D. (2004, Fall). Intuitive ethics: how innately prepared intuitions generate culturally variable virtues. Daedalus, 133(4), 55-66. doi: 10.1162/0011526042365555
Haidt, J., & Kesebir, S. (2010). Morality. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (5th ed.) (pp.797-832). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Heise, D. R. (1979). Understanding events: Affect and the construction of social action. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Heise, D. R. (2001). Project Magellan: Collecting cross-cultural affective meanings via the internet. Electronic Journal of Sociology, 5. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~socpsy/papers/magellan/Magellan.htm on 11th July, 2015.
Horn, J. L. (1965). A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 30(2), 179-185.
Inglehart, R. (2015). The silent revolution: Changing values and political styles among Western publics. Princeton University Press.
Kohlberg, L. (1964). Development of moral character and moral ideology. In M. L. Hoffman & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 1, pp. pp. 381-431). New York: Russell Sage.
O'Connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer's MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instrumentation, and Computers, 32(3), 396-402. https://people.ok.ubc.ca/brioconn/ nfactors/nfactors.html. Retrieved on 8th June, 2013. doi: 10.3758/BF03200807
Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois Press.
Renner, W. (2003a). Human values: a lexical perspective. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(1), 127-141.
Renner, W. (2003b). A German value questionnaire developed on a lexical basis: Construction and steps toward a validation. Review of Psychology, 10(2), 107-123.
Renner, W., & Salem, I. (2004). Unterschiede zwischen Wertorientierungen nach Geschlecht, Alter, Berufsgruppe, Parteienpräferenz und Bundesland: Ergebnisse der Standardisierung des Österreichischen Wertefragebogens [Differences between value orientations by gender, age, vocational group, political party preference and federal district: Results of the standardization of the Austrian Value Questionnaire]. ZA-Informationen, 54, 89-112.
Rogers, K. B., Schröder, T., & Scholl, W. (2013). The affective structure of stereotype content: behavior and emotion in intergroup context. Social Psychology Quarterly, 76(2), 125-150. doi: 10.1177/0190272513480191
Schröder, T. (2011). A model of language-based impression formation and attribution among Germans. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 20(10), 1-21. doi: 10.1177/0261927X10387103
Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1-65). doi: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6
Schwartz, S. H., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Davidov, E., Fischer, R., Beierlein, C., Konty, M. (2012). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(4), 663. doi: 0.1037/a0029393
Shweder, R. A., Haidt, J., Horton, R., & Joseph, C. (2008). The cultural psychology of the emotions: Ancient and renewed. In M. Lewis, J. M., Haviland-Jones, and L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed.), (pp. 409-427). New York u.a.: Guilford Press.
Suhler, C. L., & Churchland, P. (2011). Can innate, modular “foundations” explain morality? Challenges for Haidt's moral foundations theory. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 23(9), 2103-2116. doi:10.1162/jocn.2011.21637
Weller, I., & Matiakse, W. (2008). Gütekriterien einer deutschsprachigen Version der Mini-Markers zur Erfassung der "Big Five" [Reliability and validity of the German Big-Five Mini Markers]. Werkstatt für Organisations- und Personalforschung e.V. - Berichte & Skripte; 16. http://www.econbiz.de/archiv1/2009/60253_erfassung_der_big-five.pdf Retrieved on April 21, 2013.
Yardley, J. (2015, July 7). Pope Francis, in Ecuador, calls for more protection of rain forest and its people. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/08/world/americas/pope-francis-in-ecuador-calls-for-more-protection-of-rain-forest-and-its-people.html
Yardley, J., & Appelbaum, B. (2015, July 11). In fiery speeches, Francis excoriates global capitalism. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/12/world/americas/in-fiery-speeches-francis-excoriates-global-capitalism.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=first-column-region®ion=top-news&WT.nav=top-news
Yardley, J., & Neuman, W. (2015, July 9). In Bolivia, Pope Francis apologizes for church’s ‘grave Sins’. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/10/world/americas/pope-francis-bolivia-catholic-church-apology.html
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).