Why People Leave Their Jobs?
Keywords:Intention to leave, turnover, turnover intent, turnover intention, voluntary turnover.
This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013). The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.
Adams, G. A., & Beehr, T. A. (1998). Turnover and retirement: a comparison of their similarities and differences . Personnel Psychology , 51, 643-665.
Agarwal, U. A., Datta , S., Blake-Beard , S., & Bhargava , S. (2012). Linking LMX, innovative work behaviour and turnover intentions The mediating role of work engagement. Career Development International, 17 (3), 208-230.
Allen, B. C., Sargent, L. C., & Bradley, L. M. (2003). Differential effects of task and reward interdependence on perceived helping behavior, effort, and group performance. Small Group Research , 34, 716-740.
Allen, D. G., & Griffeth , R. W. (1999). ob performance and turnover: a review and integrative multi-route
model . Human Resource Management Review , 9, 525-548.
Babakus, E., Yavas , U., & Ashill , N. J. (2011) Service worker burnout and turnover intentions: Roles of person-job fit, servant leadership, and customer orientation. Services Marketing Quarterly (32), 17–31.
Berthelsen , M., Skogstad , A., Lau , B., & Einarsen , S. (2011). Do they stay or do they go? A longitudinal
study of intentions to leave and exclusion from working life among targets of workplace bullying . International Journal of Manpower , 32 (2), 178-193.
Biron, M., & Boon, C. (2013). Performance and turnover intentions: a social exchange perspective . Journal of Managerial Psychology , 28 (5), 511-531.
Blomme, R. J., Rheede , A. V., & Tromp , D. M. (2010). Work-family conflict as a cause for turnover intentions in the hospitality industry . Tourism and Hospitality Research , 10 (4), 269-285.
Blomme, R. J., Rheede, A. V., & Tromp, D. M. (2010). The use of the psychological contract to explain turnover intentions in the hospitality industry: a research study on the impact of gender on the turnover intentions of highly educated employees . The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21 (1), 144-162.
Brunetto, Y., Teo, S. T., Shacklock , K., & Farr-Wharton , R. (2012). Emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, well-being and engagement: explaining organisational commitment and turnover intentions in policing . Human Resource Management Journal, 22 (4), 428-441.
Bu, N., McKeen, C. A., & Shen, W. (2011). Behavioural indicators of turnover intention: the case of young professionals in China . The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (16), 3338-3356.
Bycio, P., Hackett, R. D., & Alvares, K. M. (1990). Job performance and turnover: a review and meta-analysis . Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49, 47-76.
Cheng , Y., & Waldenberger , F. (2013). Does training affect individuals’ turnover intention? Evidence from China . Journal of Chinese Human Resource , 4 (1), 16-38.
Chinomona , R., & Chinomona , E. (2013). The influence of employees’ perceptions of organizational politics on turnover intentions in Zimbabwe’s SME sector. South African Journal of Business Management , 44 (2), 57-67.
Choi, S. P., Cheung, K., & Pang , S. M.-C. (2013). Attributes of nursing work environment as predictors of registered nursesÕ job satisfaction and intention to leave . Journal of Nursing Management (21), 429-439.
Chow, I. H., Ngb, I., & Gon, Y. Y. (2012). Risk-taking and relational perspective on turnover intentions . The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23 (4), 779-792.
Ciftcioglu, A. (2011). The relationship between perceived external prestige and turnover intention: An Empirical Investigation. Corporate Reputation Review , 13 (4), 248-263.
Cole, M. S., Bernerth, J. B., Walter, F., & Holt , D. T. (2010). organizational justice and individuals’ withdrawal: Unlocking the influence of emotional exhaustion. Journal of Management Studies , 47 (3), 367-391.
Cooper, H. M. (2009). Research synthesis and meta-analysis: A step-by-step approach. (Sage, Ed.) Los Angeles, CA, USA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Dawley, D., Houghton, J., & Bucklew, N. S. (2010). Perceived organizational support and turnover intention: The mediating effects of personal sacrifice and job fit. The Journal of Social Psychology , 150 (3), 238-257.
Dodd-McCue, D., & Wright, G. B. (1996). Men, women, and attitudinal commitment: the effects of workplace experiences and socialization. Human Relations, 49, 1065-1091.
Eddleston , K. A. (2009). The effects of social comparisons on managerial career satisfaction and turnover intentions . Career Development International, 14 (1), 87-110.
Fakunmoju, S., Woodruff, K., KIM, H. H., Lefevre, A., & Hong, M. (2010). Intention to Leave a Job: The Role of Individual Factors, Job Tension, and Supervisory Support. Administration in Social Work (34), 313-328.
Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner , S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of Employee turnover: update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26 (3), 463-488.
Guchait, P., & Cho, S. (2010). The impact of human resource management practices on intention to leave of employees in the service industry in India: the mediating role of organizational commitment . The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21 (8), 1228-1247.
Haar, J. M., Roche, M., & Taylor , D. (2012). Work–family conflict and turnover intentions of indigenous employees: the importance of the whanau/family for Maori . The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23 (12), 2546-2560.
Hayes, L. J., O’Brien-Pallas, L., Duffield, C., Shamian, J., Buchan, J., Hughes, F., y otros. (2006). Nurse turnover: A literature review . International Journal of Nursing Studies (43), 237-263.
Heijden , B. I., Dam , K. v., & Hasselhorn , H. M. (2009). Intention to leave nursing The importance of interpersonal work context, work-home interference, and job satisfaction beyond the effect of occupational commitment . Career Development International , 14 (7), 616-635.
Houshmand, M., O'Reilly, J., Robinson, S., & Wolff , A. (2012). Escaping bullying: The simultaneous impact of individual and unit-level bullying on turnover intentions . Human Relations , 65 (901), 900-918.
Jackofsky, E. (1984). Turnover and job performance: an integrated process model . Academy of Management Review, 9, 74-83.
Jaramillo, F., Grisaffe, D. B., Chonko, L. B., & Roberts , J. A. (2009). Examining The Impact of Servant Leadership on Salesperson´s Turnover Intention. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, XXIX (4), 351-365.
Kalemci T., I., & Kalemci , R. A. (2012). Organizational and supervisory support in relation to employee turnover intentions . Journal of Managerial Psychology , 27 (5), 518-534.
Kaur, B., Mohindru, & Pankaj. (2013). Antecedents of Turnover Intentions: A Literature Review . Global Journal of Management and Business Studies , 3 (10), 1219-1230.
Kim , Y.-G., Kim , S., & Yoo , J.-L. (2012). Travel agency employees’ career commitment and turnover intention during the recent global economic crisis . The Service Industries Journal , 32 (8), 1247-1264.
Kyei-Poku , I. A., & Miller, D. (2013). Impact of Employee Merger Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intentions: A Study of a Canadian Financial Institution . International Journal of Management , 30 (4), 205-224.
Lai, L., & Kapstad, J. C. (2009). Perceived competence mobilization: an explorative study of predictors and impact on turnover intentions . The International Journal of Human Resource Management , 20 (9), 1985-1998.
Lam, W., Chen, Z., & Takeuchi, N. (2009). Perceived human resource management practices and intention to leave of employees: the mediating role of organizational citizenship behaviour in a Sino-Japanese joint venture . The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20 (11), 2250-2270.
Li, X., & Zhou, E. (2013). Influence of customer verbal aggression on employee turnover intention. Management Decision , 51 (4), 890-212.
Li, Y., & Jones, C. B. (2012). A literature review of nursing turnover costs. Journal of nursing management (21), 405-418.
Liu, Z., Cai, Z., Li, J., Shi, S., & Fang, Y. (2013). Leadership style and employee turnover intentions: a social identity perspective . Career Development International, 18 (3), 305-324.
Mcnall , L. A., Masuda , A. D., & Nicklin, J. M. (2010). Flexible Work Arrangements, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intentions: The Mediating Role of Work-to-Family Enrichment . The Journal of Psychology, 144 (1), 61-81.
Meisler, G. (2013). Empirical exploration of the relationship between emotional intelligence, perceived organizational justice and turnover intentions . Employee Relations, 35 (4), 441-455.
Mishra, S. K., & Bhatnagar , D. (2010). Linking Emotional Dissonance and Organizational Identification to Turnover Intention and Emotional Well-Being: A study of Medical representatives in India. Human Resource Management, 49 (3), 401-419.
Münderlein, M., Ybema, J. F., & Koster, F. (2013). Happily ever after? Explaining turnover and retirement intentions of older workers in The Netherlands . Career Development International, 18 (6), 548-568.
Ongori, H. (Jun de 2007). A review of the literature on employee turnover . African Journal of Business Management, 49-54.
Paillé , P., & Grima , F. (2011). Citizenship and withdrawal in the workplace: Relationship between organizational citizenship behavior, intention to leave current job and intention to leave the organization . The Journal of Social Psychology, 151 (4), 478-493.
Pajo, K., Coetzer, A., & Guenole , N. (2010). Formal development opportunities and withdrawal Behaviors by employees in small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Small Business Management, 48 (3), 281-301.
Regts, G., & Molleman, E. (2012). To leave or not to leave: When receiving interpersonal citizenship behavior influences an employee’s turnover intention. Human relations The Tavistock Institute, 66 (193), 192-218.
Robinson, S. D., Griffeth, R. W., Allen, D. G., & Lee, M. B. (2012). Comparing operationalizations of dual commitment and their relationships with turnover intentions. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23 (7), 1342-1359.
Schmidt, J. A., & Lee, K. (2008). Voluntary retirement and organizational turnover intentions: the differential associations with work and non-work commitment constructs . Journal of Business Psychology, 22, 297-309.
Shahnawaz, M. G., & Jafri , M. H. (2009). Job Attitudes as Predictor of Employee Turnover among Stayers and Leavers/Hoppers . Journal of Management Research, 9 (3), 159-166.
Sharoni , G., Tziner , A., Fein , E. C., Shultz , T., Shaul, K., & Zilberman , L. (2012). Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Turnover Intentions: Do Organizational Culture and Justice Moderate Their Relationship? . Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42 (S1), E267-E294.
Siebert, W. S., & Zubanov , N. (2009). Searching for the optimal level of employee turnover: A study of a large U.K. retail organization . Academy of Management Journal, 52 (2), 294-313.
Singh, P., & Loncar , N. (2010). Pay Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intent . Relations industrielles / industrial relations , 65 (3), 470-490.
Slatten, T., Svensson , G., & Sværi , S. (2011). Service quality and turnover intentions as perceived by employees Antecedents and consequences . Personnel Review, 40 (2), 205-221 .
Stahl, G. K., Chua , C. H., Caligiuri, P., Cerdin, J.-L., & Taniguchi, M. (2009). Predictors of Turnover Intentions in Learning-Driven and Demand-Driven International Assigments: The role of repatriation Concerns, Satisfaction With Company support, And Perceived Career Advancement Opportunities. Human Resource Management, 48 (1), 89-109.
Staufenbiel, T., & König, C. J. (2010). A model for the effects of job insecurity on performance, turnover intention, and absenteeism . Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (83), 101-117.
Steers, R. M., & Mowday, R. T. (1981). Employee turnover and post-decision accommodation processes . Research in Organizational Behavior, 235-281.
Suliman, A. A., & Al-Junaibib , Y. (2010). Commitment and turnover intention in the UAE oil industry . The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21 (9), 1472–1489 .
Sun, J. Y., & Wang, G. G. (2011). Integrating disparate literatures on voluntary career transition and voluntary turnover: Implications for research in the Chinese context. Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, 2 (1), 23-42.
Tax, S. S., & Brown, S. W. (1998). Recovering and learning from service failure. Sloan Management Review, 40, 75-88.
Van Breukelen, W., Van der Vlist, R., & Steensma, H. (2004). voluntary employee turnover: combining variables from the ‘traditional’ turnover literature with the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 893-914.
Vandenberghe , C., & Bentein , K. (2009). A closer look at the relationship between affective comnnitment to supervisors and organizations and turnover. Journal of Occupational and organizational psychology, (82), 331-348.
Wright, T. A., & Bonett, D. G. (2007). Job satisfaction and psychological well-being as nonadditive predictors of workplace turnover . Journal of Management, 33 (2), 141-160.
Yang , J., Gong , Y., & Huo , Y. (2011). Proactive personality, social capital, helping, and turnover intentions . Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26 (8), 739-760.
Zimmerman , R. D., & Darnold , T. C. (2009). The impact of job performance on employee turnover intentions and the voluntary turnover process. A meta-analysis and path model. Personnel Review, 38 (2), 142-158.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).