Relationship Leadership, Employee Engagement, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Dorothea Wahyu Ariani

Abstract


Our research focuses on the impact of supportive leadership and employee engagement on the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The research study setting with the individual unit of analysis. A survey was conducted by using questionnaires from previous research. The questionnaires were sent to 300 employees in service organizations in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 252 completed surveys data were returned anonymously in sealed envelopes. Validity and reliability tests were used to test the questionnaires contents. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationship among variables.   The result proved that supportive leadership and employee engagement have direct positive relationship with OCB and employee engagement mediated the relationship between supportive leadership and OCB. A thorough discussion on the relationship among the variables as well as on self-rating is presented in this paper. 


Keywords


supportive leadership, employee engagement, organizational citizenship behavior

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allameh, Sayyed Mohsen; Shahriari, Mohsen; and Mansoori, Hossein. (2012). Investigating Employee's Attitude Toward Organization, Organizational Climate and Employee's Engagement as Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 6(8): 384-393.

Alok, Kumar and Israel, D. (2012). Authentic Leadership and Work Engagement. The Indian Journal of Individual Relations, 47(3): 498-510.

Avey, James B.; Hughes, Larry W.; Norman, Steven M.; and Luthans, Kyle W. (2008). Using Positivity, Transformational Leadership, and Empowerment To Combat Employee Negativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29(2): 110-126.

Avolio, Bruce J. and Bass, Bernard M. (1995). Individual Consideration Viewed at Multiple Levels of Analysis: A Multi-level Framework for Examining The Influence of Transformational Leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6(1): 199-218.

Avolio, Bruce J.; Bass, Bernard M.; and Jung, Dong I. (1999). Re-Examining The Components of Transformational and Transactional Leadership among The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72(4): 441-462.

Babcock-Roberson, Meredith Elaine and Strickland, Oriel J. (2010). The relationship Between Leadership, Work Employment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 144 (3), 313-326.

Bakker, Arnold B. and Demerouti, Evangelia. (2008). Towards A Model of Work Engagement. Career Development International, 13(3): 209-223

Bass, Bernard M. (1985), Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations, Free Press, New York, NY.

Bass, Bernard M.; Avolio, Bruce J.; Jung, Dong I.; and Berson, Yair. (2003). Predicting Unit Performance by Assessing Transformational and Transactional Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2): 207-218.

Behling, Orlando and McFillen, James M. (1996). A Syncretical Model of Charismatic/ Transformational Leadership. Group & Organization Studies, 21(2): 163-191.

Blakely, Gerald L.; Srivastava, Abhisek; and Moorman, Robert H. (2005). The Effects of Nationality, Work Role Centrality, and Work Locus of Control on Role Definition of OCB. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 12(1): 103-106.

Boerner, Sabine; Dutschke, Elisabeth; and Wied, Simon. (2008). Charismatic Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Examining The Role of Stressor and Strain. Human Resource Development International, 11(5): 507-521.

Borman, Walter C. ; Penner, Louis A. ; Allen, Tammy D. ; and Motowidlo, StephanJ. (2001). Personality Predictors of Citizenship Performance. Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10 (1/2), March/June : 52-69.

Borman, Walter C. and Motowidlo, Stephan J. (1997). Task Performance and Contextual Performance : The Meaning For Personnel Selection Research. Human Performance, 10(2), 99-109.

Bycio, Peter, Hackett, Rick D., and Allen, Joyce S. 1995. Further Assessments of Bass’s (1985) Conceptualization of Transactional and Transformational Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(4): 468-478.

Byrne, Barbara M. (2001). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Cheung, Millissa F.Y. and Wong, Chi-Sum. (2011). Transformational Leadership, Leader Support, and Employee Creativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(7): 656-672

Chiu, Su-Fen and Tsai, Miao-Ching. (2006). Relationship Among Burnout, Job Involvement, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 140(6): 517-530.

Christian, Michael S.; Garza, Adela S.; and Slaughter, Jerel E. (2011). Work Engagement: A Quantitative Review and Test of Its Relations with Task and Contextual Performance. Personnel Psychology, 64(1): 84-136.

Cooper, Donald R and Schindler, Pamela S. (2001). Business Research Methods. 7th edition. Singapore : McGraw – Hill/ Irwin.

Dvir, Taly; Eden, Dov; Avolio, Bruce J.; and Shamir, Boas. (2002). Impact of Transformational Leadership on Follower Development and Performance: A Field Experiment. The Academy of Management Journal, 45(4): 735-744.

Farh, Jiing-Lih; Zhong, Chen-Bo; and Organ, Dennis W. (2004). Organizational Citizenship Behavior in The People’s Republic of China. Organization Science, 15(2): 241-253.

Ghafoor, Azka; Qureshi, Tahir Masood; Khan, M.Aslam; and Hijazi, Syed Tahir. (2011) Transformational Leadership, Employee Engagement and Performance: Mediating Effect of Psychological Ownership. African Journal of Business Management, 5(17): 7391-7403.

Gibson, James L.; Ivancevich, John M.; and Donnelly, James H. (2000). Organizations: Behavior, Structure, Process, 10th edition. Boston: Mc Graw Hill.

Hair, Joseph E.; Black, William C. ; Babin, Barry J. ; Anderson, Rolph E. ; and Tatham, Ronald L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis. 6th edition. New Jersey : Prentice-Hall International Inc.

Jiao, Changquan; Richards, David A.; and Zhang, Kai. (2011). Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: OCB-Specific Meanings as Mediators. Journal of Business Psychology, 26(1): 11-25.

Judge, Timothy A., and Piccolo, R.onald F. (2004). Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5): 755-768.

Kahn, William A. (1990). Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement of Work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4): 692-724.

Katz, Daniel and Kahn, Robert L. (1966). The Social Psychology of Organization. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

LePine, Jeffrey A. ; Erez, Amir ; and Johnson, Diane E. (2002). The Nature and Dimensionality of Organizational Citizenship Behavior : A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1) : 52-65.

Lian, Lee Kim and Tui, Low Goan. (2012). Leadership Style and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Effects of Subordinate Competence and Downward Influence Tactics. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 13(2): 59-96

Macey, William H. and Schneider, Benjamin. (2008). The meaning of Employee Engagement. Industrial Organizational Psychology, 1(1): 3-30.

MacKenzie, Scott B.; Podsakoff, Philip M.; and Rich, Gregory A. (2001). Transformational and Transactional Leadership and Salesperson Performance. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2): 115-135.

MacKinnon, David P., Coxe, Stefany, and Baraldi, Amanda H. (2012). Guidelines for The Investigation of Mediating Variables in Business Research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(1): 1-14.

Mansoor, Narmeen and Aslam, Hassan Daniel. (2012). Exploring Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Its Critical Link To Employee Engagement For Effective Human Resource Management In Organizations. Mediterranean Journal of Social Science, 3(1): 567-576.

May, Douglas R.; Gilson, Richard L.; and Harter, Lynn M. (2004). The Psychological Conditions of Meaningfulness, Safety, and Availability and The Engagement of the Human Spirit at Work. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 77(1): 11-37.

Mayfield, Clifton O. and Taber, Thomas D. (2010). A Prosocial Self-Concept Approach to Understanding Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25 (7), 741-763.

Mohd Soieb, Ahmad Zairy; Othman, Jamilah; and D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence. (2013). The Effects of Perceived Leadership Styles and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour on Employee Engagement: The Mediating Role of Conflict Management International Journal of Business and Management, 8(8): 91-99.

Moorman, Robert H. and Blakely, Gerald L. (1995). Individualism-Collectivism As An Individual Differences Predictor of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(1) : 127-142.

Neuman, W. Lawrence. (2006). Social Research Methods : Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 6th edition. New York : Allyn and Bacon.

Organ, Dennis W. 1994. Personality and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Management, 20(2): 465-478

Organ, Dennis W. and Konovsky, Mary A. (1989). Cognitive versus Affective Determinant of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(1) : 151-164

Organ, Dennis W. and Ryan, Katherine. (1995). A Meta-Analytic Review of Attitudinal and Dispositional Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Personnel Psychology, 48(4) : 775-802.

Papalexandris, Nancy and Galanaki, Eleanna. (2009). Leadership’s Impact On Employee Engagement: Differences Among Entrepreneurs and Professional CEOs. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 30(4): 365-385.

Piccolo, Ronald F., and Colquitt, Jason A. (2006). Transformational Leadership and Job Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Core Job Characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2): 327-340.

Podsakoff, Nathan P.; Whitting, Steven E.; Podsakoff, Phillip M.; and Blume, Brian D. (2004). Individual and Organizational Level Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Meta- Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1): 122-141.

Podsakoff, Philip M. and Bommer, William H. (1996). Transformational Leader Behaviors and Sustitutes For Leadership as Determinants of Employee Satisfaction, Commitment, Trust, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. Journal of Management, 28 (2): 259-298.

Podsakoff, Philip M. and MacKenzie, Scott B. (1997). Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance : A Review and Suggestions For Future Research. Human Performance, 10(2) : 133-151.

Podsakoff, Philip M.; MacKenzie, Scott B.; and Bommer, William H, (1996). Meta-Analysis of The Relationship Between Kerr-Jermier’s Substitutes For Leadership and Employee Job Attitudes, Role Perceptions, and Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4): 380-399.

Podsakoff, Philip M.; MacKenzie, Scott B.; Moorman, Robert B.; and Fetter, Richard. (1990). Transformational Leadership Behavior and Their Efects on Followers’ Trust in Leader, Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 1(1): 107-142.

Podsakoff, Philip M.; MacKenzie, Scott B.; Paine, Julie Beth; and Bachrach, Daniel G. (2000). Organizational Citizenship Behavior : Critical Review of The Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research. Journal of Management, 26(3): 513 – 563.

Purvanova, Radostina K.; Bono, Joyce E.; and Dzieweczynski, Jessica. (2006). Transformational Leadership, Job Characteristics, and Organizational Citizenship Performance. Human Performance, 19(1): 1-22.

Rhoades, Linda and Eisenberger, Robert. (2002). Perceived Organizational Support: A review of The Literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4): 698-714.

Rich, Bruce Louis; Lepine, Jeffrey A.; and Crawford, Ecan R. (2010). Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53(3): 617-635.

Rurkkhum, Suthinee and Bartlett, Kenneth R. (2012). The Relationship between Employee Engagement and Organizational Citizenship Behavior is Thailand. Human Resource Development International, 15(2): 157-174.

Sahoo, Chandan Kumar and Mishra, Sukanta. (2012). A Framework Towards Employee Engagement: The PSU Experience. ASCI Journal of Management, 42(1): 94-112

Saks, Alan M. (2006). Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7): 600-619.

Saks, Alan M. (2008), The Meaning and Bleeding of Employee Engagement: How Muddy is The Water?. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1): 40-43.

Salanova, Marisa and Schaufeli, Wilmar B. (2008). A Cross-National Study of Work Engagement as a Mediator between Job Resource and Proactive Behavior. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(1): 116-131.

Salanova, Marisa; Agut, Sonia; and Peiro, Jose Maria. (2005). Linking Organizational Resources and Work Engagement to Employee Performance and Customer Loyalty: The Mediation of Service Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6): 1217–1227.

Sarangi, Swatee. (2012). An Exploratory Study of Employee Engagement Initiatives in The Indian Banking Sector. SIES Journal of Management, 8(1): 9-22.

Schaufeli, Wilmar B. and Bakker, Arnold B. (2004). Job Demands, Job Resources, and Their Relationship with Burnout and Engagement: A Multi Sample Study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3): 293-315.

Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Bakker, Arnold B.; and Salanova, Marisa. (2006). The Measurement Of Work Engagement with a Short Questionnaire: A Cross National Study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4): 701-716.

Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Salanova, Marisa; Gonzales-Roma, Vicente; and Bakker, Arnold B. (2002). The Measurement of Engagement and Burnout: A Two Sample Confirmatory factor Analytic Approach. Journal of Happines Studies, 3(1): 71-92

Sekaran, Uma and Bougie, Roger. (2010). Research methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach, 5th edition. Singapore: A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Shamir, Boas; House, Robert J.; and Arthur, Michael B. (1993). The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Based Theory. Organizational Science, 4(4): 577-594.

Shin, Shung Jae and Zhou, Jing. (2003). Transformational Leadership, Conservation, and Creating: Evidence From Korea. Academy of Management Journal, 46(6): 703-714

Simon, Simeon S. (2009). The Essence of Employee Engagement In Organizations. Working Paper.

Smith, C.Ann ; Organ, Dennis W. ; and Near, Janet P. (1983). Organizational Citizenship Behavior : Its Nature and Antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68 (4): 653-663.

Wang, Hui; Law, Kenneth S.; Hackett, Rick D.; Wang, Doanxu; and Chen, Zhen Xiong. (2005). Leader-Member Exchange as a Mediator of The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Followers’ Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 48(3): 420-432.

Xu, Jessica and Thomas, Helena Cooper. (2011). How Can Leaders Achieve High Employee Engagement?. Leadership and Organizational Development, 22(4): 399-416.

Yuan, Benjamin J.C.; Lin, Michael B.H.; Shieh, Jia Horng; and Li, Kuang-Ping. (2012). Transforming Employee Engagement into Long-term Customer Relationship: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan. Social behavior & Personality, 40(9): 1549-1554.

Yukl, Garry A., and Van Fleet, David D. (1982). Cross-situational, Multi-method Research on Military Leader Effectiveness. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30(1): 87–108.

Zaigham, Nida. (2007). Impact of Supportive Supervisor, Empowerment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in Private Sector of Pakistan. Working Paper.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/ijbsr.v4i8.589

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c)

 ...........................................................................................................................

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

............................................................................................................................

If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please forward your doc file to support@thejournalofbusiness.org. Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add  this domain thejournalofbusiness.org in your email safe list.

International journal of business and social research (Print)
ISSN 2164-2540

International journal of business and social research (Online)
ISSN 2164-2559

[International Journal of Business and Social Research (IJBSR) previously published by MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, MD, USA. From February 2018 this journal is published by the LAR Center Press, OR, USA]