Time Management and Its Relation To Students’ Stress, Gender and Academic Achievement Among Sample of Students at Al Ain University of Science and Technology, UAE
Keywords:Keywords, Time management, Perceived Stress, Academic Achievement, College Students.
AbstractThe objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between time management, perceived stress, gender and academic achievement among United Arab Emirates college students. The respondents were 352 college students from Al Ain University of Science and Technology. The sample was stratified by sex. Among the respondents, 52.5% were female students and 47.5% were male students. The mean age of the sample was 23.4 years ranging from 18 to 39. Time management was measured by Time Management Questionnaire” developed by Britton and Tesser (1991), while perceived stress was measured by The Perceived Stress Scale developed by Cohen (1985). The findings of the study showed that there was statistically significant negative relationship between time management and perceived stress.Females reported higher time management compared to their males counter mates. Higher time management and lower perceived stress were associated with high levels of academic achievement. However, time management was the most significant predictor of academic achievement accounting for 26 % of the variance while perceived stress accounted for an additional 11.2% of the variance in academic achievement. All three predictors explained 29.4% (R = .543) of total variance. The implications and limitations are reviewed as are the suggestions for future research. Keywords: Time management, perceived stress, academic achievement, college students.
Abbasnejad, E., farahani, A., & Nakhaei, A. (2013). The relationship between time management and job stress in teachers of physical education and non physical education. Advances in Environmental Biology, 7(8), 1340-1347.
Amponsah, M. & Owolabi, H. O. (2011). Perceived Stress Levels of Fresh University Students in Ghana: A Case Study. British Journal of Educational Research, 1(2),153-169,
Alay, S. & Koçak, S. (2002). Validity and reliability of time management questionnaire. Review of Faculty of Education, 22, 9-13.
Balduf, M. (2009). Underachievement among college students. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20, 274-294.
Britton, B. K., & Tesser, A. (1991). Effects of time-management practices on college grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 405-410.
Burrus, J., Jackson, T., Holtzman, S., Roberts, R., & Mandigo, T. (2013). Examining the Efficacy of a Time Management Intervention for High School Students, ETS, Princeton, New Jersey, 13-25.
Burt, C. D., & Kemp, S. (1994). Construction of activity duration and time management potential. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, 155-168.
Campbell, R. L. & Svenson, L. W. (1992). Perceived level of stress among university undergraduate students in Edmonton. Canada. Perceptual and Motor Skills,75(2), 552-554.
Cohen, S. D., William, J., & Skoner, D. P. (1999). Psychological stress, cytokine productions, and severity of upper respiratory illness. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(2), 175-180.
Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In S. Spacapam & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The social psychology of health: Claremont Symposium on applied social psychology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Covic, T., Adamson, B. J., Lincoln, M., & Kench, P. L. (2003). Health science students’ time organization and management skills: A cross disciplinary investigation. Medical Teacher, 25, 47-53.
Dusselier, L., Dunn, B., Wang, Y., Shelley, M. C., & Whalen, D. F. (2005). Personal, health, academic, and environmental predictors of stress for residence hall students. Journal of American College Health, 54, 15-24.
Eilam, B. and Aharon, I. (2003). Students planning in the process of self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 304-34
Fogle, G. E., & Pettijohn, T. F. (2013). Stress and health habits in college students. Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 2(2), 61-68.
Frazier, T., Youngstrom, E. & Glutting, J. (2007). ADHD and achievement: Meta-analysis of the child, adolescent, & adult literatures & a concomitant study with college students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, 49-65.
Izawa, C. (2002).Total time & efficient time management. In search of optimal learning & rerntion via. American Journal of Psychology,113,221-224.
Iz, F.B. & Ozen, T.A. (2010). Investigation of relationship between time management and academic achievement in nursing students to be the candidate intern. Journal of Süleyman Demirel University Institute of Social Sciences, 11 (1), 123-135.
Kaushar, Mehnaz (2013). Study of impact of time management on academic performance of college students, Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM). 9(6), 59-60.
Kaya H, Kaya N, Palloş AÖ, Küçük L. (2012). Assessing time-management skills in terms of age, gender, and anxiety levels: a study on nursing and midwifery students in Turkey. Nurse Educ. Pract,12(5), 284-8.
Kelly, W.E. (2002). Harnessing the river of time: a theoretical framework of time use efficiency with suggestions for counselors. Journal of Employment Counseling, 39, 12-21.
King, A. C., Winett, R. A., & Lovett, S. B. (1986). Enhancing coping behaviors in at-risk Time management 33 populations: The effects of time-management instruction and social support in women from dual-earner families. Behavior Therapy, 17, 57-66.
Koolhaas, M.J., Sijtsma, K. & Witjas, R. (1992), Tijdperspectieven in time managementtrainingen”,Time perspectives in time management training programs. Gedrag en Organisatie, 5, 94-105.
Lay, C. H., & Schouwenburg, H. C. (1993). Trait procrastination, time management, and academic behavior. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8, 647-662.
Macan, T. H., Shahani, C., Dipboye, R. L., & Phillips, A. P. (1990). College students’ time management: Correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 760-768.
Mark, T. & James, H. (2005). Measuring Time-Management Skills: Cross-Cultural Observations on Britton and Tesser's Time Management Scale. Eric Document, No. ED 417667.
Misra, R., & McKean, M. (2000). College students’ academic stress and its relation to their anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction. American Journal of Health Studies, 16(1), 41-51.
Mpofu, E., D'Amico, M., & Cleghom, A. (1996). Time management practices in an African culture: Correlates with college academic grades. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 28(2), 102-112.
Necati, C., & Sevil, F. (2010). The Relation Between Time Management Skills and Academic Achievement of Potential Teachers. Educational Research Quarterly, 33( 4): 3.
Nonis, S. A., Hudson, G. I., Logan, L .B., & Ford, C. W. (1998). Influence of perceived control over time on college students’ stress and stress-related outcomes. Research in Higher Education. 39(5), 587-605.
Petrie, T. A., and Stoever, S. (1997). Academic and nonacademic predictors of female student athletes’ academic performance. Journal of College Student Development 38(6): 599–608.
Pritchard, M. E., and Wilson, G. S. (2003). Using emotional and social factors to predict student success. Journal of College Student Development 44(1): 18–28.
Pedhazur, E. J. (1982). Multiple regression in behavioral research (2nd. ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Saketi P. & Taheri A. (2010). The relationship between time management and academic achievements among bachelor and master students of Shiraz University and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 10 (3), 293-300.
Sevari, K. & Kandy, M. (2011). Time management skills impact on self-efficacy and academic performance. Journal of American Science, 7, 720-726.
Strongman, K.T. and Burt, C.D.B. (2000), Taking breaks from work: an exploratory inquiry. Journal of Psychology, 134, 229-42.
Swart, A. J., Lombard, K., & Jager, H. (2010). Exploring the relationship between time management skills and the academic achievement of African engineering students – a case study. European Journal of Engineering Education, 35(1), 79-89.
Talib, N. (2012). Determinants of Academic Performance of University Students. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2012, 27(2), 265-278
Tanriogen, A. & Iscan, S. (2009). Time management skills of Pamukkale University students and their effects on academic achievement. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 35, 93-108.
Trueman, M. & Hartley, J. (1996). A comparison between the time-management skills and academic performance of mature and traditional-entry university students. Higher Education, 32, 199-245.
Yilmaz, İ., Yoncalik, O., &Bektaş, F. (2010). Relationship between the time management behavior and academic success. E Journal of New World Sciences Academy, 5(3), 187-194.
Wavy, W. W. (2008). The Relationship between Time Management, Perceived Stress,
Sleep Quality and Academic Performance among University Students, A Honors Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Social Sciences (Honors) in Psychology, Hong Kong Baptist University.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).