Entrepreneurial Intention, Culture, Gender and New Venture Creation: Critical Review

James Gathungu

Abstract


In today’s world, the formation of new firms is crucial for the vitality of national economies. Initialization and support of new business ventures are important tasks for both policy makers and academics. This independent conceptual study paper investigates the relationship between entrepreneurial intention and new venture start-ups as moderated by the effects of cultural values as well as the intervening influence of gender. Peoples’ attitudes toward income, independence, risk, and work effort forms the foundation of entrepreneurial intent.  Entrepreneurs are often described in terms of the strength or weakness of their attitudes in these dimensions. Previously, research on the question of why people choose entrepreneurship as a career option has been based predominantly on the disciplines of psychology and sociology. More recently there have been important contributions from an economics’ perspective also. Analysis of past literature has indicated the existence empirical concerns on the venture creation and entrepreneurial intention relationship. In particular, there is a paucity of research on how entrepreneurs harness the potential of cultural influence in new firm creation.  Some researchers have also raised issues relating to the important theoretical arguments which are anchored on the role of gender in new venture creation.  The current study focuses on past contributions in this stream of literature, seeking to provide definitive evidence of previously examined relationships between entrepreneurial intention and new venture as impacted by culture and gender.

Keywords


Entrepreneurial Intentions; Gender; Culture and new venture creation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acs, Z. J. – Desai, S. – Hessels, J. (2008) Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions. Small Business Economics, Vol. 31, No: 3, 219–234.

Aidis, R. – Estrin, S. – Mickiewicz. T. (2008) Institutions and entrepreneur- ship development in Russia: A comparative perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 23, No: 6, 656–672.

Ajzen, I. – Fishbein, M. (2004) Questions raised by reasoned action approach: Comment on Odgen (2003). Health Psychology, Vol. 23, No: 4, 431–434.

Aldrich, H. – Cliff, J. (2003) The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneur- ship: Toward a family embeddedness perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 18, No: 5, 573–596.

Armitage, C. J. – Conner, M. (2001) Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 40, No: 4, 471–499.

Baumol. W. J. – Strom, R. (2007) Entrepreneurship and economic growth. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Vol. 1, No: (3–4), 233–237.

Bird, B. J. (1992) The operation of intentions in time: the emergence of the new venture. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Vol. 17, No: 1, 11–20.

Bruton, G. D. – Ahlstrom, D. – Li, H-L. (2010) Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: Where are we now and where do we need to move in the future? Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Vol. 34, No: 3, 421–440.

Carr, J. C. – Sequeira, J. M. (2007) Prior family business exposure as intergenerational influence and entrepreneurial intent: A theory of planned behaviour approach. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 60, No: 10, 1090–1098.

Carree, M. A. – Thurik, A. R. (2010) The impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth. In: Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, eds. D. B. Audretsch – Z. J. Acs, 557–594. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer

Carter, N. M. – Gartner, W. B. – Shaver, K. G. – Gatewood, E. J. (2003) The career reasons of nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 18, No: 1, 13–29.

Chavance, B. (2008) Institutional economics. London: Routledge. Churchill, G. A. Jr. (1979) A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 16, No: 1, 64–73.

Sociology, Vol. 94, No: 1, 95–120.

Cooper, A. C. – Folta, T. B. (2000) Entrepreneurship and high technology clusters. In: Handbook of Entrepreneurship, eds. D. L. Sexton – H. Landstrom, 348–367. Oxford: Blackwell.

Creed, W. E. D. – DeJordy, R. – Lok, J. (2010) Being the change: Resolving institutional contradictions through identity work. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 53, 1336–1364.

De Carolis, D. M. – Litzky, B. E. – Eddleston, K. A. (2009) Why networks enhance the progress of new venture creation: The influence of social capital and cognition. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Vol. 33, No: 2, 527–545.

Down, S. – Warren, L. (2008) Constructing narratives of enterprise: Clichés and entrepreneurial self-identity. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, Vol. 14, No: 1, 4–23.

European Commission (2006) Entrepreneurship Education in Europe: Fostering Entrepreneurial Mind-sets through Education and Learning. Commission of the European Communities: Oslo.

Fink, M. – Loidl, S. – Lang, R. (2012) Community-Based Entrepreneurship and Rural Development. Regional Studies Book Series. London

.

Ford, J. – Ford, L. – D’Amelio, A. (2008) Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 33, No: 2, 362– 377.

Frederking, L. C. (2004) A cross-national study of culture, organizations and entrepreneurship in three neighbourhoods. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Vol. 16, No: 3, 197–215.

Garud, R. – Hardy, C. – Maguire, S. (2007) Institutional entrepreneurship as embedded agency: An introduction to the special issue. Organization Studies, Vol. 28, No: 7, 957–969.

Gertler M. (2010) Rules of the game: The place of institutions in regional economic change. Regional Studies, Vol. 44, No: 1, 1–15.

Gibson, D. (2004) Role models in career development: New directions for theory and research. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, Vol. 65, No: 1, 134–156.

Gird, A. – Bagraim, J. J. (2008) The theory of planned behaviour as predictor of entrepreneurial intent amongst final year university students. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 38, No: 4, 711–724.

Granovetter, M. D. (2004) The impact of social structures on economic development. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 19, No: 1, 33–50.

Grilo, I. – Thurik, A. R. (2008) Determinants of entrepreneurial engagement levels in Europe and the US. Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 17, No: 6, 1113–1145.

Hamilton, E. E. – Smith, R. (2003) The entrepreneuse: A silent entrepreneurial narrative. Paper presented at the Small Business and Entrepreneurship Development Conference, April 2003, University of Surrey.

Hoang, H. – Antoncic, B. (2003) Network-based research in entrepreneurship: A critical review. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 18, No: 2, 165–187.

.

Hofstede, G. (2001) Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviours, institutions, and organizations across nations. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Hollingsworth, J. R. (2000) Doing institutional analysis: Implications for the study of innovations. Review of International Political Economy, Vol. 7, No: 4, 595–644.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gender_role

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture#Aspects_of_culture

Jack, S. L. (2010) Approaches to studying networks: Implications and outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 25, No: 1, 120–137.

Jepperson, R. (1991) Institutions, institutional effects, and institutionalism. In: The new institutionalism in organizational analysis, eds W. W. Powell – P. J. DiMaggio, 143–163. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kautonen, T. – van Gelderen, M. – Tornikoski E. T. (2013) Predicting entrepreneurial behaviour: A test of the theory of planned behaviour. Applied Economics, Vol. 45, No: 6, 697–707.

Klapper, L. – Lewin, A. – Delgado, J. M. (2009) The impact of the business environment on the business creation process. Policy Research Working Paper 4937. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Knight, F. (1921) Risk, uncertainty, and profit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Krueger, N. F. – Reilly, M. D. – Carsrud, A. L. (2000) Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 15, No: 5–6, 411–432.

Lang, R. – Roessl, D. (2011) Contextualizing the governance of community co-operatives: Evidence from Austria and Germany. Voluntas, Vol. 22, No: 1, 706–730.

Langowitz, N. – Minniti, M. (2007) The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Vol. 31, No: 3, 341–364.

Lee, S. H. – Yamakawa, Y. – Peng, M. W. – Barney, J. (2010) How do bankruptcy laws affect entrepreneurship development around the world? Journal of Business Venturing. DOI:10.1016/ j.jbusvent.2010.05.001.

Li, Y. – Zahra, S. A. (2012) Formal institutions, culture, and venture capital activity: A cross-country analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 27, No: 1, 95–111.

Liao, J. – Welsch, H. (2005) Roles of social capital in venture creation: Key dimensions and research implications. Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 43, No: 4, 345–362.

Linan, F. Y. – Urbano, D. – Guerrero, M. (2011) Regional variations in entrepreneurial cognitions: Start-up intentions of university students in Spain. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Vol. 23, No: 3–4, 187–215.

McClelland, D. C. (1961) The achieving society. New York: Van Nostrand.

Mitchell, R. K. – Busenitz, L. W. – Bird, B. – Gaglio, C. M. – McMullen, J. S. – Morse, E. A. (2007) The central question in entrepreneurial cognition research. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Vol. 31, No: 1, 1–27.

Mueller, P. (2006) Entrepreneurship in the region: Breeding ground for nascent entrepreneurs? Small Business Economics, Vol. 27, No: 1, 41–58.

Newbert, S. L. – Tornikoski, E. (2011) Resource acquisition in the emergence phase: Considering the effects of embeddedness and resource dependence. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. DOI: 10.1111/ j.1540–6520.2011.00461.x.

Newbert, S. L. – Tornikoski, E. (2012) Supporter networks and networking activity: A contingency model of organizational emergence. Small Business Economics, Vol. 39, No: 1, 141–159.

Powell, W. W. – Colyvas, J. A. (2008) Microfoundations of institutional theory. In: The Sage handbook of organizational institutionalism, eds. R. Greenwood – C. Oliver – K. Sahlin – R. Suddaby, 276–298, London

Puffer, S. – McCarthy, D. – Boisot, M. (2010) Entrepreneurship in Russia and China: The impact of formal institutional voids. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Vol. 34, No: 3, 441–467.

Rafiqui, P. S. (2009) Evolving economic landscapes: Why new institutional economics matters for economic geography. Journal of Economic Geography, Vol. 9, No: 3, 329–353.

Scott, W. R. (2010) Reflections: The past and future of research on institutions and institutional change. Journal of Change Management, Vol. 10, No: 1, 5–21.

Shane, S. – Venkataraman, S. (2000) The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 25, No: 1, 217–226.

Shapero, A. (1984) The entrepreneurial event. In: The environment for entrepreneurship, ed. C. Kent, 21–40. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath.

Shinnar, R. S. – Giacomin, O – Janssen, F. (2012) Entrepreneurial perceptions and intentions: The role of gender and culture. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 36, No: 3, 465–493

Smallbone, D – Welter, F. (2010) Entrepreneurship and government policy in former Soviet Republics: Belarus and Estonia compared. Environment and Planning C, Vol. 28, No: 2, 195–210.

Spencer, J. W. – Gómez, C. (2004) The relationship among national institutional structures, economic factors, and domestic entrepreneurial activity: A multicountry study. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 57, No: 10, 1098–1107.

Spilling, O. R. (2011) Mobilising the entrepreneurial potential in local community development. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Vol. 23, (1–2), 23–35

Stam, E. – Thurik, R. – van der Zwan, P. (2010) Entrepreneurial exit in real and imagined markets. Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 19, No: 4, 1109–1139.

Stam, E. – Van Stel, A. (2011) Types of entrepreneurship and economic growth. In: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, eds. M. Goedhuys – W. Naudé – E. Szirmai, 78–95, Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Stenholm, P. – Zoltan, A. – Wuebker, R. (2013) Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 28, No: 1, 176–193.

Thurik, A. R. – Dejardin, M. A. F. G. (2011) The impact of culture on entrepreneurship. The European Business Review, jan-feb, 57–59.

Thompson, E. R. (2009) Individual entrepreneurial intent: Construct clarification and development of an internationally reliable metric. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Vol. 33, No: 3, 669–694.

Thornton, P. H. – Ribeiro-Soriano, D. – Urbano, D. (2011) Socio-cultural factors and entrepreneurial activity: An overview. International Small Business Journal, Vol. 29, No: 2, 105–118.

Venkataraman, S. (1996) Some methodological challenges for entrepreneurial process research. Symposium paper presented at the Academy of Management meeting, Cincinnati, August, 1996.

Welter, F. (2011) Conceptual challenges and ways forward. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Vol. 35, No: 1, 165–184.

Wiklund J. – Shepherd, D. (2005) Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 20: No: 1, 71–91.

Williamson, O. E. (2000) The new institutional economics: Taking stock, looking ahead. Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 38, 595–613. Yin, R. K. (2009) Case study research: Design and methods (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Young, E. C. –

Zahra, S. (2007) Contextualising theory building in entrepreneurship research. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 22, No: 3, 443–452.

Zucker, L. G. (1983) Organizations as institutions. In: Research in the sociology of organizations, ed. S. B. Bacharach, 1–42. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/ijbsr.v4i2.402

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c)

 ...........................................................................................................................

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

............................................................................................................................

If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please forward your doc file to support@thejournalofbusiness.org. Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add  this domain thejournalofbusiness.org in your email safe list.

International journal of business and social research (Print)
ISSN 2164-2540

International journal of business and social research (Online)
ISSN 2164-2559

[International Journal of Business and Social Research (IJBSR) previously published by MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, MD, USA. From February 2018 this journal is published by the LAR Center Press, OR, USA]