The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Leader-Follower Work Value Congruence

David Bosch


This study builds on the theory that transformational leadership impacts perceptions of leader-follower value congruence. The study examines intrinsic, altruistic, and social work values in a sample of 150 workers in the United States. The hypotheses tested that different levels of transformational leadership, as perceived by followers, are positively related to follower perceptions of leader-follower intrinsic, altruistic, and social work value congruence. Utilizing hierarchical multiple regression, the findings indicate that  levels of perceived transformational leadership are positively related to higher levels of perceived leader-follower intrinsic, altruistic, and social work value congruency. This study used four different measurement tools to test these hypotheses and controlled for task-oriented behaviors, tenure with supervisor as well as race, gender, and age similarity with supervisor. The findings suggest that organizations involved in a restructuring or reorganization due to either internal or external circumstances should emphasize developing leaders’ transformational leadership behaviors in order to capture benefits related to value congruency.


Transformational Leadership, Leadership, Values, Work Values, Value Congruency

Full Text:



Amos, E. & Weathington, B. L. (2008). An analysis of the relation between employee-organization value congruence and employee attitudes. The Journal of Psychology, 142(6), 615-631.

Antonakis, J., Avolio, B. J., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (2003). Context and leadership: An examination of the nine-factor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Leadership Quarterly, 14, 261-295.

Askun, D., Oz, E. U., & Askun, O. B. (2010). Understanding managerial work values in Turkey. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(1), 103–114.

Balthazard, P., Waldman, D., & Warren, J. (2009). Predictors of the emergence of transformational leadership in virtual decision teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20(5), 651. doi: 1856423791

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Bass, B. M. (1997). Does the transactional–transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational boundaries? American Psychologist, 52, 130–139.

Bass, B. M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 9–32.

Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. J (2003). Transformational leadership and organizational culture. Public Administration Quarterly, 17(1), 112-122.

Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. J. (2004). Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Mindgarden, Inc.

Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology 88(2), 207–218.

Beugre, C. D., Acar, W., & Brown, W. (2006). Transformational leadership in organizations: An environment induced model. International Journal of Manpower, 27(1), 52-62.

Briggs, S. R. & Cheek, J. M. (1986). The role of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of personality scales. Journal of Personality, 54, 106-148.

Brown, M. E., & Trevino, L. K. (2009). Leader–Follower values congruence: Are socialized charismatic leaders better able to achieve it? Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 478–490.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Cable, D. M. & Judge, T. A. (1996). Person-Organization fit, job choice decisions, and organizational entry, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67(3), 294-311. doi: 10.1006/obhd.1996.0081

Carless, S. A., Wearing, A. J., & Mann, L. (2000). A short measure of transformational leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14(3), 389-405.

Cazier, J. A., Shao, B. B., & St. Louis, R. D. (2007). Sharing information and building trust through value congruence. Information Systems Frontiers, 9, 515-529. doi: 10.1007/s10796-007-9051-6

Dose, J. D. (1997). Work values: An integrative framework and illustrative application to organizational socialization. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70(3), 219-241.

Erdogan, B., Kraimer, M.L., & Liden, R.C. (2004). Work value congruence and intrinsic career success: The compensatory roles of leader–member exchange and perceived organizational support, Personnel Psychology, 57(2), 305–332.

Elizur, D. (1984). Facets of work values: A structural analysis of work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 379–389.

Enz, C. A. (1988). The role of value congruity in intraorganizational power. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33(2), 284-295.

Fields, D. L. (2002). Taking the measure of work: A guide to validated scales for organizational research and diagnosis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Finegan, J. E. (2000). The impact of person and organizational values on organizational commitment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 2(73), 149-169.

Gahan, P., & Abeysekura, L. (2009). What shapes an individual’s work values? An integrated model of the relationship between work values, national culture, and self-construal. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(1), 126–147.

Grojean, M. W., Resick, C. J., Dickson, M. W., & Smith, D. B. (2004). Leaders, values, and organizational climate: Examining leadership strategies for establishing an organizational climate regarding ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 55, 223-241.

Hisrich, R. D. (2010). International Entrepreneurship: Starting, Developing, and Managing a Global Venture, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Judge, T.A., & Bono, J.E. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 751-765.

Jung, D. I., & Avolio, B. J. (1999). Effects of leadership style and followers' cultural orientation on performance in group and individual task conditions. The Academy of Management Journal 42(2), 208-218.

Jung, D. I., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). Opening the black box: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of trust and value congruence on transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(8), 949-967.

Kalliath, T.J., Bluedorn, A.C., & Strube, M.J. (1999). A test of value congruence effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 1175–1198.

Kark, R., Shamir, B., & Chen, G. (2003). The two faces of transformational leadership: Empowerment and dependency. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 246-255. doi: 346450701

Kerlinger, F. N., & Lee, H. B. (2000). Foundations of behavioral research (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt.

Krishnan, V.R. (2002). Transformational leadership and value system congruence. International Journal of Value -Based Management, 15(1), 19-33.

Krishnan, V. R. (2004). Impact of transformational leadership on followers’ influence strategies. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(1), 58-72.

Lau, D. C., Liu, J., & Fu, P. P. (2007). Feeling trusted by business leaders in China: Antecedents and the mediating role of value congruence. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 24(1), 321-340.

Liu, W., Lu, X., & Wan, W. (2008). Demographic effects of work values and their management of expectations. Journal of Business Ethics, 81, 875-885.

Lord, R. G., & Brown, D. J. (2001). Leadership, values, and direct report self-concepts. Leadership Quarterly, 12, 133–152.

Lyons, S. (2003). An exploration of generational values in life and at work. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ABI/Inform database, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Lyons, S., Duxbury, L., & Higgins, C. (2006). A comparison of the values and commitment of private sector, public sector, and parapublic sector employees. Public Administration Review, 66(4), 605-618. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2006.00620.x

Lyons, S. T., Higgins, C. A., & Duxbury, L. (2010). Work values: Development of a new three-dimensional structure based on confirmatory smallest space analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(7), 969-1002.

Meglino, B.M. & Ravlin, E.C. (1998), Individual values in organizations: Concepts, controversies, and research, Journal of Management, 24(3), 351-389.

Meglino, B. M., Ravlin, E. C. & Adkins, C. L. (1989). A work values approach to corporate culture: A field test of the value congruence process and its relationship to individual outcomes, Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 424–432.

Meglino, B. M., Ravlin, E. C. & Adkins, C. L. (1991). Value congruence and satisfaction with a leader: An examination of the role of interaction. Human Relations, 44, (5), 481–495.

Meglino, B. M., Ravlin, E. C., & Adkins, C. L. (1992). The measurement of work value congruence: A field study comparison, Journal of Management, 18, 33–43.

Popper, M., & Lipshitz, R. (2000). Installing mechanisms and instilling values: The role of leaders in organizational learning. The Learning Organization, 7(3), 135-151.

Posner, B.Z. & Schmidt, W.H. (1992), Values and the American manager: An update, California Management Review, 26. 80-94.

Pryor, R. G. L. (1987). Differences among differences: In search of general work preference dimensions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(3) 426–433.

Ros, M., Schwartz, S., & Surkiss, S. (1999). Basic individual values, work values, and the meaning of work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48(1), 49-71. doi:10.1080/026999499377664.

Schreisheim, C. A., Wu, J. B., & Scandura, T. A. (2009). A meso measure? Examination of the levels of analysis of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 604–616

Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19–45.

Sosik, J. J. (2005). The role of personal values in the charismatic leadership of corporate managers: A model and preliminary field study. LeadershipQuarterly, 16, 221–244.

Stodgill, R. M. (1963). Manual for the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire—Form Xll. Retrieved from AL.pdf



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please forward your doc file to Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add  this domain in your email safe list.

International journal of business and social research (Print)
ISSN 2164-2540

International journal of business and social research (Online)
ISSN 2164-2559

[International Journal of Business and Social Research (IJBSR) previously published by MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, MD, USA. From February 2018 this journal is published by the LAR Center Press, OR, USA]