A Conceptual Framework for Upgrading Safety Performance by Influence Safety Training, Management Commitment to Safety and Work Environment: Jordanian Hospitals


  • Abdallah Mohammad Ashour Universiti Utara Malaysia http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3027-3160
  • Zuraida Hassan School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Jamal Mohammed Esmail Alekam School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia




Management Commitment to Safety, Safety Performance, Safety Training, Work Environment.


Workplace safety is vital for the continuous operation, survival and optimal functionality of organizations (James & Zoller, 2017; Kabir, Watson, & Somaratna, 2018), especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Indeed, safety at workplaces, worksites and across various organizational structures is critical to the overall performance and existence of organizations including those in healthcare (Beus, Dhanani, & McCord, 2015). Scholars, industry practitioners, and relevant stakeholders have both acknowledged and underscored the need for improved safety performance indicators in organizations and related work-settings (Cornelissen, Van Hoof, & De Jong, 2017; Dababneh, Fouad, Jaleel, & Majeed, 2018; Mullen, Kelloway, & Teed, 2017). To serve this objective, this paper develops a conceptual framework of safety performance based on the social exchange theory (SET). The main aim of this study is to create a framework for examining the causal links between safety training, management commitment to safety, and the work environment with the level of safety in the Jordanian healthcare context. Accordingly, this study presents a framework that considers safety training and management commitment to safety as important dimensions of safety management practices.

Author Biography

Abdallah Mohammad Ashour, Universiti Utara Malaysia

PhD ScholarSchool of Business ManagementUniversiti Utara Malaysia


Abozead, S. E. S., Abuhasheesh, M., Nawafleh, H., Kawafha, M. M., & Al-Tarawneh, O. (2015). Knowledge and practices of Jordanian nurses on needlestick injuries: An evaluative study. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice, 23(1), 21-25.

Al-Abdallat, E. M., Oqailan, A. M. A., Al Ali, R., Hudaib, A. A., & Salameh, G. A. M. (2015). Occupational fatalities in Jordan. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 29, 25–29.

Al-Bsheish, M.A., bin Mustafa, M., & Ismail, M.A. (2017). Enhancing safety performance by recognizing the role of perceived management commitment to safety in the Jordanian healthcare industry: Conceptual framework. International Journal of Business and Social Research, 7(1), 1-10.

Andersen, L. P., Nørdam, L., Joensson, T., Kines, P., & Nielsen, K. J. (2018). Social identity, safety climate and self-reported accidents among construction workers. Construction Management and Economics, 36(1), 22-31.

Atefi, N., Abdullah, K. L., & Wong, L. P. (2014). Job satisfaction of Malaysian registered nurses: A qualitative study. Nursing in Critical Care, 21(1), 8-17.

Bahn, S. (2013). Workplace hazard identification and management: The case of an underground mining operation. Safety Science, 57, 129-137.

Balanay, J. A. G., Adesina, A., Kearney, G. D., & Richards, S. L. (2014). Assessment of occupational health and safety hazard exposures among working college students. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 57(1), 114-124.

Balkan, M.O., & Serin, A.E. (2014). The effect of organızatıonal stress on individual performance: A study on hospital staff. . International Journal of Business and Social Research, 4(2), 100-111.

Battaglia, M., Frey, M., & Passetti, E. (2014). Accidents at work and costs analysis: A field study in a large Italian company. Industrial Health, 52(4), 354-366.

Bergström, J., Miller, M., & Horneij, E. (2015). Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study. Work, 50(2), 221–228.

Beus, J. M., Dhanani, L. Y., & McCord, M. A. (2015). A meta-analysis of personality and workplace safety: Addressing unanswered questions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 481-498.

Bieder, C., Gilbert, C., Journé, B., & Laroche, H. (2018). Beyond safety training: Embedding safety in professional skills. Basel, Switzerland: Springer Open.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York, NY: Wiley.

Bosak, J., Coetsee, W. J., & Cullinane, S. J. (2013). Safety climate dimensions as predictors for risk behavior. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 55, 256-264.

Brahm, F., & Singer, M. (2013). Is more engaging safety training always better in reducing accidents? Evidence of self-selection from Chilean panel data. Journal of Safety Research, 47, 85-92.

Cigularov, K. P., Chen, P. Y., & Rosecrance, J. (2010). The effects of error management climate and safety communication on safety: A multi-level study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(5), 1498-1506.

Clarke, S. (2016). Managing the risk of workplace accidents. In R. J. Burke & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Risky business: Psychological, physical and financial costs of high risk behavior in organizations, (pp. 403-432). London: Routledge.

Cooper, D. (2015). Effective safety leadership: Understanding types and styles that improve safety performance. Professional Safety, 60(2), 49-53.

Cornelissen, P. A., Van Hoof, J. J., & De Jong, M. D. (2017). Determinants of safety outcomes and performance: A systematic literature review of research in four high-risk industries. Journal of Safety Research, 62, 127-141.

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874-900.

Curcuruto, M., Conchie, S. M., Mariani, M. G., & Violante, F. S. (2015). The role of prosocial and proactive safety behaviors in predicting safety performance. Safety Science, 80, 317-323.

da Cunha, D. T., Stedefeldt, E., & de Rosso, V. V. (2014). The role of theoretical food safety training on Brazilian food handlers' knowledge, attitude and practice. Food Control, 43, 167-174.

Dababneh, A., Fouad, R. H., & Majeed, A. J. H. (2018). Assessment of occupational safety and health performance indicators for Jordan. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 10(6S), 162-169.

Dai, C., Lan, L., & Lian, Z. (2014). Method for the determination of optimal work environment in office buildings considering energy consumption and human performance. Energy and Buildings, 76, 278–283.

Demirkesen, S., & Arditi, D. (2015). Construction safety personnel's perceptions of safety training practices. International Journal of Project Management, 33(5), 1160-1169.

Dul, J., & Ceylan, C. (2014). The impact of a creativity-supporting work environment on a firm’s product innovation performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(6), 1254–1267.

Durdyev, S., Mohamed, S., Lay, M. L., & Ismail, S. (2017). Key factors affecting construction safety performance in developing countries: Evidence from Cambodia. Construction Economics and Building, 17(4), 48-65.

Erdogan, B., Ozyilmaz, A., Bauer, T. N., & Emre, O. (2018). Accidents happen: Psychological empowerment as a moderator of accident involvement and its outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 71(1), 67-83.

Eskandari, D., Jafari, M. J., Mehrabi, Y., Kian, M. P., Charkhand, H., & Mirghotbi, M. (2017). A qualitative study on organizational factors affecting occupational accidents. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 46(3), 380-388.

Feng, X. Q., Acord, L., Cheng, Y. J., Zeng, J. H., & Song, J. P. (2011). The relationship between management safety commitment and patient safety culture. International Nursing Review, 58(2), 249-254.

Feng, Y. (2013). Effect of safety investments on safety performance of building projects. Safety Science, 59, 28-45.

Fernández-Muñiz, B., Montes-Peón, J. M., & Vázquez-Ordás, C. J. (2017). The role of safety leadership and working conditions in safety performance in process industries. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 50, 403-415.

Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25(2), 161-178.

Griffin, M. A., & Curcuruto, M. (2016). Safety climate in organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3, 191-212.

Gunduz, M., & Laitinen, H. (2018). Observation based safety performance indexing method for construction industry–validation with SMEs. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 22(2), 440-446.

Hajmohammad, S., & Vachon, S. (2014). Safety culture: A catalyst for sustainable development. Journal of Business Ethics, 123(2), 263-281.

Hämäläinen, P., Takala, J., & Kiat, T. B. (2017). Global estimates of occupational accidents and work-related illnesses 2017. Workplace Safety and Health Institute (pp. 1-21). Finland.

Hasan, A., & Jha, K. N. (2013). Safety incentive and penalty provisions in Indian construction projects and their impact on safety performance. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 20(1), 3-12.

Hofmann, D. A., Burke, M. J., & Zohar, D. (2017). 100 years of occupational safety research: From basic protections and work analysis to a multilevel view of workplace safety and risk. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 375-388.

Hon, C. K., Chan, A. P., & Yam, M. C. (2014). Relationships between safety climate and safety performance of building repair, maintenance, minor alteration, and addition (RMAA) works. Safety Science, 65, 10-19.

Hosny, G., Ea, E., & Ea, S. (2017). A comparative assessment of safety climate among petroleum companies. Egyptian Journal of Occupational Medicine, 41(2), 307-324.

Huang, Y. P., Wang, X. Q., Ding, R. X., & Xia, N. N. (2016). Risk perception, risk propensity, and unsafe behavior: An empirical study of workers in Chinese construction industry. In Proceedings of the Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management Conference (IEEM) (pp. 1121-1125). Bali: IEEE.

Hughes, S. W., Tippett, D. D., & Thomas, W. K. (2004). Measuring project success in the construction industry. Engineering Management Journal, 16(3), 31-37.

International Labour Organization (2017). Snapshots on occupational safety and health (OSH). Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/dgreports/dcomm/ documents/meetingdocument/-wcms_572867.pdf.

Ioannou, C., Harris, D., & Dahlstrom, N. (2017). Safety management practices hindering the development of safety performance indicators in aviation service providers. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 7(2), 95-106.

Jafari, M. J., Gharari, M., Kalantari, S., Omidi, L., Ghaffari, M., & Fardi, G. R. A. (2015). The influence of safety training on improvement in safety climate in construction sites of a firm. Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention, 2(4), 257-264.

Jahangiri, M., Zadeh, K. S., Bashar, O., & Zadeh, H. S. (2017). Investigating effective factors on risk perception, safety attitude and safety performance of construction workers of Shiraz city, 2012. Journal of Health in the Field, 1(4), 30-36.

James, E. P., & Zoller, H. M. (2017). Healthy workplace. The International Encyclopedia of Organizational Communication.

Kabir, Q. S., Watson, K., & Somaratna, T. (2018). Workplace safety events and firm performance. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 29(1), 104-120.

Kao, K. Y., Spitzmuller, C., Cigularov, K. P., & Thomas, C. L. (2017). A moderated mediation model of safety knowledge, safety attitude, and safety performance. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2016(1), 16128.

Kaynak, R., Toklu, A. T., Elci, M., & Toklu, I. T. (2016). Effects of occupational health and safety practices on organizational commitment, work alienation, and job performance: Using the PLS-SEM approach. International Journal of Business and Management, 11(5), 146-166.

Ketterman, D. B., Fu, C. Y., & Jones-Holguin, T. C. (2016). Thank God it's Monday [TGIM]: Helping career practitioners create a more stable, enjoyable work environment for greater job satisfaction using the character champions’ framework. Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, 32(4), 81.

Kohli, S. (2007). Safety management system. Retrieved from http://www.bialairport.com/.

Laurent, J., Chmiel, N., & Hansez, I. (2017). Perceived management commitment to safety and safety behaviors: the moderating role of trust and support (Unpublished Abstract). Paper presented at the 18th Congress of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP), Dublin, Ireland, 17-21 May.

Law, W. K., Chan, A. H. S., & Pun, K. F. (2006). Prioritising the safety management elements: A hierarchical analysis for manufacturing enterprises. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 106(6), 778-792.

Lunau, T., Dragano, N., Siegrist, J., & Wahrendorf, M. (2017). Country differences of psychosocial working conditions in Europe: the role of health and safety management practices. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 90(7), 629-638.

Maguire, R. (2017). Safety cases and safety reports: Meaning, motivation and management. Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Manu, P., Mahamadu, A. M., Ath, C., Heng, A. Y. T., & Kit, S. C. (2017). Health and safety management practices of contractors in South East Asia: A multi country study of Cambodia, Vietnam, and Malaysia. Safety Science, 107, 188-201.

Marín, L. S., Lipscomb, H., Cifuentes, M., & Punnett, L. (2017). Associations between safety climate and safety management practices in the construction industry. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 60(6), 557-568.

Mooren, L., Grzebieta, R., Williamson, A., Olivier, J., & Friswell, R. (2014). Safety management for heavy vehicle transport: A review of the literature. Safety Science, 62, 79-89.

Mullen, J., Kelloway, E. K., & Teed, M. (2017). Employer safety obligations, transformational leadership and their interactive effects on employee safety performance. Safety Science, 91, 405-412.

Namian, M., Albert, A., Zuluaga, C. M., & Behm, M. (2016). Role of safety training: Impact on hazard recognition and safety risk perception. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 142(12), 1-10.

Namian, M., Albert, A., Zuluaga, C. M., & Jaselskis, E. J. (2016). Improving hazard-recognition performance and safety training outcomes: Integrating strategies for training transfer. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 142(10), 1-11.

Neal, A., Griffin, M. A., & Hart, P. M. (2000). The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34(1), 99-109.

Newhouse, R. P., Himmelfarb, C. D., Morlock, L., Frick, K. D., Pronovost, P., & Liang, Y. (2013). A phased cluster-randomized trial of rural hospitals testing a quality collaborative to improve heart failure care: Organizational context matters. Medical Care, 51(5), 396-403.

Nguyen, P. D., Dang, C. X., & Nguyen, L. D. (2015). Would better earning, work environment, and promotion opportunities increase employee performance? An investigation in state and other sectors in Vietnam. Public Organization Review, 15(4), 565-579.

Osman, R., Awang, N., Hassan, S. A. H. S., & Yusof, N. M. (2015). Level of awareness on behaviour-based safety (BBS) in manufacturing industry towards reducing workplace incidents. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(1), 77-88.

Porter, T. H., Riesenmy, K. D., & Fields, D. (2016). Work environment and employee motivation to lead: Moderating effects of personal characteristics. American Journal of Business, 31(2), 66-84.

Randles, B., Jones, B., Welcher, J., Szabo, T., Elliott, D., & MacAdams, C. (2010). The accuracy of photogrammetry vs. hands-on measurement techniques used in accident reconstruction (No. 2010-01-0065). SAE Technical Paper.

Reader, T. W., Mearns, K., Lopes, C., & Kuha, J. (2017). Organizational support for the workforce and employee safety citizenship behaviors: A social exchange relationship. Human Relations, 70(3), 362-385.

Ricci, F., Chiesi, A., Bisio, C., Panari, C., & Pelosi, A. (2016). Effectiveness of occupational health and safety training: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Journal of Workplace Learning, 28(6), 355-377.

Rose, A., & Rae, W. I. D. (2017). Perceptions of radiation safety training among interventionalists in South Africa. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, 28(3), 196-200.

Rousseau, D. M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2(2). 121-139.

Salin, D. (2015). Risk factors of workplace bullying for men and women: The role of the psychosocial and physical work environment. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56(1), 69–77.

Searcy, C., Dixon, S. M., & Neumann, W. P. (2016). The use of work environment performance indicators in corporate social responsibility reporting. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 2907-2921.

Shahin, A., Naftchali, J. S., & Pool, J. K. (2014). Developing a model for the influence of perceived organizational climate on organizational citizenship behaviour and organizational performance based on balanced score card. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63(3), 290-307.

Shannon, H. S., Walters, V., Lewchuk, W., Richardson, J., Moran, L. A., Haines, T., & Verma, D. (1996). Workplace organizational correlates of lost‐time accident rates in manufacturing. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 29(3), 258-268.

So, H., & Rho, J. O. (2017). Comparative analysis of status of safety accidents and importance-performance analysis (IPA) about precautions of safety accidents by employment type of industry foodservices in Jeonbuk area. Journal of Nutrition and Health, 50(4), 402-414.

Stalpers, D., de Brouwer, B. J., Kaljouw, M. J., & Schuurmans, M. J. (2015). Associations between characteristics of the nurse work environment and five nurse-sensitive patient outcomes in hospitals: A systematic review of literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(4), 817-835.

Tabish, S. Z. S., & Jha, K. N. (2015). Success factors for safety performance in public construction projects. The Indian Concrete Journal, 58-72. Retrieved from https://icjonline.com/views/2015.02_POV_Tabish.pdf.

Takala, J., & Young, E. (2014). Mortality estimates of occupational injuries and ill health in Singapore. Paper presented at the Public Health and Occupational Medicine Conference, 2014. Singapore: Workplace Safety and Health Institute (WSH).

Tholén, S. L., Pousette, A., & Törner, M. (2013). Causal relations between psychosocial conditions, safety climate and safety behaviour–A multi-level investigation. Safety Science, 55, 62-69.

Vinodkumar, M. N., & Bhasi, M. (2010). Safety management practices and safety behaviour: Assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(6), 2082-2093.

Wachter, J. K., & Yorio, P. L. (2014). A system of safety management practices and worker engagement for reducing and preventing accidents: An empirical and theoretical investigation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 68, 117-130.

Wu, X., Liu, Q., Zhang, L., Skibniewski, M. J., & Wang, Y. (2015). Prospective safety performance evaluation on construction sites. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 78, 58-72.

Xia, N., Griffin, M. A., Wang, X., Liu, X., & Wang, D. (2018). Is there agreement between worker self and supervisor assessment of worker safety performance? An examination in the construction industry. Journal of Safety Research, 65, 29-37.

Yang, C. C., Wang, Y. S., Chang, S. T., Guo, S. E., & Huang, M. F. (2009). A study on the leadership behavior, safety culture, and safety performance of the healthcare industry. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 53(1), 1148-1155.

You, L. M., Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., Liu, K., He, G. P., Hu, Y., & Shang, S. M. (2013). Hospital nursing, care quality, and patient satisfaction: Cross-sectional surveys of nurses and patients in hospitals in China and Europe. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(2), 154-161.

Yukl, G. (1994). Leadership in organizations (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Zahoor, H., Chan, A. P., Utama, W. P., Gao, R., & Zafar, I. (2017). Modeling the relationship between safety climate and safety performance in a developing construction industry: A cross-cultural validation study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(4), 351.

Zohar, D. (1980). Safety climate in industrial organizations: Theoretical and applied implications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(1), 96–102.

Zohar, D., & Polachek, T. (2014). Discourse-based intervention for modifying supervisory communication as leverage for safety climate and performance improvement: A randomized field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(1), 113-124.

Zohar, D., Huang, Y. H., Lee, J., & Robertson, M. (2014). A mediation model linking dispatcher leadership and work ownership with safety climate as predictors of truck driver safety performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 62, 17-25.

Zúñiga, F., Ausserhofer, D., Hamers, J. P., Engberg, S., Simon, M., & Schwendimann, R. (2015). Are staffing, work environment, work stressors, and rationing of care related to care Workers' perception of quality of care? A cross-sectional study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(10), 860-866.