Building a Climate of Change with a link through Transformational Leadership and Corporate Culture: A Management key to a Global Environment
Keywords:Global, Caribbean, Transformational leadership, organizational culture, performance
AbstractLeaders in the Caribbean Diaspora have argued that there is no documented evidence of the association between the three fundamental pillars of public sector organization: leadership, performance and culture. This cross-culture leadership concern has evoked a series of research which basic aim is to conceptualize the leadership culture phenomenon. The problem is that there is a high degree of dysfunctional leadership within the public sectors organizations in the Caribbean diaspora and there is limited empirical evidence that can be had to validate the reason for this inadequacy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the link between transformational leadership styles, corporate organizational culture types and performance in sixteen public sectors organizations. The methodology implemented in this research is the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X), and the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) to collect data. Seventy-five executive directors completed measures of the MLQ 5x leadership traits and culture types. A total of 200 employees from across sixteen public sector organizations completed the measures on leadership and culture. The responses were scaled and coded to enable the segmentation of the data into dependent and independent variables based on the leadership, performance and culture variables. The study utilized the multiple regression models and correlation statistical analyses to determine the degree of commonality among the components. The results indicate support for the hypotheses link between the traits of transformational leadership and organizational culture with performance being the mediating variable. Exploratory analysis showed that several executive leaders have leadership traits that support culture values. The study concluded that transformational leadership and corporate organizational culture have positive effects on facilitating performance and is best suited in managing change and innovation in mature public and private sector organizations.
Aronson, E., (2001). Integrating leadership styles and ethical perspectives. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 18(4), 244-256
Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (2003). Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the multifactor leadership questionnaire. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, Vol. 72, 441-62.
Avolio, B. J. (2007). Promoting More Integrative Strategies for Leadership Theory-Building. American Psychologist 62 (1): 25-33.
Avolio, B., Waldman, D., & Yammarino, F. (2004). Leading in the 1990s: The four I’s of transformational leadership. Journal of European Industrial Training, 15, 9-16.
Barbuto, J. E. (2005). Motivation and transformational, charismatic, and transformational leadership: A Test of Antecedents. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies,
Banerij, P., & Krishnan, V. R. (2000). Ethical preferences of transformational leaders: an empirical investigation. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 21(8), 1-11
Barney, J. (2016). Organizational culture. Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 656-665.
Bass, B. M. (2003). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 9-32.
Bass, B. M.; & Avolio, B. J. (2002). The multifactor leadership questionnaires Form 5X. Center for Leadership Studies, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY.
Bass, M., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Developing transformational leadership: 1992 and beyond. Journal of European Industrial Training, 14, 21-37.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (spring, 2003). Transformational leadership and organizational culture: Public Administration Quarterly, 17(1), 112-121.
Bass, B. M. & Avolio B. J. (2005). Improving organizational effectiveness through
Transformational leadership. Thousand Oak: Sage Publication.
Blackwell, S. S. (2006). The influence of perceptions of organizational structure & culture on leadership role requirements: The moderating impact of locus of control & self-monitoring. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12(4)1-27.
Block, L. (2003). The relationship between transformational leadership styles and organizational culture connection in improving performance in public sector. The leadership-culture connection: An exploratory investigation. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(5/6), 318-334.
Brown, E. M. (2007). An examination of the link between organizational culture and performance: A study of three county public health departments (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 2007). UMI Publication No. AAT 3306035.
Burns, J. M. (2003). Leadership. Transforming Leadership: A New Pursuit of Happiness. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Cadden, C., Marshall. D, Coa. G (2013) "Opposites attract: Organizational culture and supply chain performance", Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 18 Iss: 1, pp.86 - 103
Campbell, J.P &Freeman, S.J. (2013). Culture congruence, strength and type: Relationships to Effectiveness. Research in Organizational Change and Development 12(5). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press
Cameron K, S. & Quinn, R. E. (2006). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture. (Revised Edition). San Francisco: The Jossey-Bass.
Casimir, G., Waldman, D. A., Bartram, T., & Yang, S. (2006). Trust and the relationship between leadership and follower performance: Opening the Box in Australia and China. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12(3), 1-14.
Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2006). Business research methods. (9th Eds.). New York:McGraw-Hill.
Denison, D. R. (1990), Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness, New York: Wiley.
Denison, D. R., & Mishra, A. K. (2005). Towards a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness. Organization Science, 6 (7) 204-22.
Flemming, P.L. (2009). A study of the relationship between transformational leadership traits and organizational culture types in improving performance in public sector organizations: A Caribbean Perspective: Doctoral dissertation, Capella University. UMI
Publication No. 3366452.
Fombrun, C. (2011). Corporate culture, environment, and strategy. Human Resources Management, 22, 139- 152.
Gordon, G.G. (2015). The relationship of corporate culture to industry sector and corporate performance: R. H. Kilman; M. J. Saxton, & R. Serpa, (2nd Eds.). Gaining Control of the Corporate Culture, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 103-25.
Gordon, G. G., & DiTomaso, N. (2003), Predicting corporate performance from organizational culture. Journal of Management Studies, (29)783-98.
Hambrick, D. C. (2005). Operationalizing the concept of business-level strategy in research. Academy of Management Review, 5 (4), 567-576.
Hartog, D. N. D., Jaap J. V. M., & Koopman, P. L. (2011). Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the MLQ. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 1 (70), 19-34.
Harrigan, k. R. (2015). Strategy formulation in declining industries. Academy of Management Review, 5(4), 599-604.
Hater, J. J. & Bass, B. M. (2005). Superiors’ evaluation and subordinates’ perceptions of transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 695-702.
Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K. H. (2011). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources. (5th Eds.). Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hinkin, T., & Tracey, J. (2013). The relevance of charisma for transformational leadership in stable organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(2), 105.
Hooijberg, R., & Petrock, F. (2004). On cultural change: Using the competing value framework to help leaders execute a transformational strategy. Human Resource Management, 32(1)1-29.
Howard, L. (2009). Validating the competing values model as a representation of organizational cultures. International Journal of Organizational Analysis
(1993 - 2002), 6(3), 231.
Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2006), Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: key predictors of consolidated-business-unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, (78), 891-902.
Javidan, M., & Waldman, D. (2003, March). Exploring Charismatic Leadership in the Public Sector: Measurement and Consequences. Public Administration Review, 63(2), 229-242.
Kotter, J. P., & Heskett, J. L. (2004). Corporate Culture and Performance. New York, NY: The Free Press.
Kouzes, J., & Posner, R. (2002). Leadership the challenge (3rd Eds.). San Francisco: The Jossey-Bass.
Lim, B. (2015), Examining the organizational culture and organizational performance link. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, (16)16-21.
Linnenluecke, M. K., Grifﬁths. A (2009). Corporation, culture, and commitment: Motivation and social control in organizations. Journal of World Business 45 (2010) 357–366.
Llies, R., Judge, T., & Wagner, D. (2006). Making sense of motivational leadership: The trail from transformational leaders to motivated followers. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13(1), 1-22.
Louis, M. Linnenluecke M.K., Grifﬁths. A. (2009). Corporate sustainability and organizational culture: An investigator’s guide to workplace culture, in organizational culture. Journal of World Business 45 (2010) 357–366.
Mahgoubali, T. E. (2004). The role of public sector leadership in fostering socio-economic and political development in Africa. United Nations Department of economic and Social Affairs, 1(1), 27-30.
Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership. (4th Eds.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Naidoo, P., Coopoo, P. and Surujlal, J. (2015). Perceived leadership styles of sport administrators and the relationship with organizational effectiveness. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation, pp. 167-181.
Northouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and practice. (3rd Eds.). Thousand Oak, California: Sage Publication.
Ogbonna, E., & Harris, L. C. (2000), Leadership style, organizational culture and performance: empirical evidence from UK companies. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(1), 766-88.
Parry, W. K. (2012). Enhancing adaptability: leadership strategies to accommodate change in local government setting. Journal of Leadership Studies 5(4).
Robbins, S. (2005). Organization theory. Structure, design, and application. (3rd Eds.). Eaglewood, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Rowden, R. W. (2002). The strategic role of human resource management in developing a global corporate culture. International Journal of Management, 1 19(2), 155-160.
Rudd, J., Greenly, G.E, Beaston, A.T, Lings, I. N. (2008). Strategic planning and performance: Extending the debate Journal of Business Research Vol. 61, I. 2, 99–108.
Schein, E. (2002). Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45(2), 109-119.
Schimmoeller, L. J. (2006). An empirical investigation of the relationship between organizational culture and leadership styles. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto Canada, UMI 3244423.
Scott, W.R. and Davis, G.F. (2007), Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems, Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Scott, R. W. (2003). Organizations: rational, natural, and open system (5th Eds.). New Jersey: Upper Saddle River.
Selden, S. C., & Sowa, J. E. (2004). Testing a Multi-Dimensional Model of Organizational Performance: Prospects and Problems. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 14(3), 395-416.
Shilbury, D, Anne More. K (2006). A Study of Organizational Effectiveness for National Olympic Sporting Organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 35(1):5-38
Tucker, B. A., & Russell, R. F. (2004). The influence of the transformational leader. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), 103-111.
Van Wart, M. (2003, March). Public-Sector Leadership Theory: An Assessment. Public Administration Review, 63(2), 214-228.
Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2006). Leadership Style, Organizational politics, and employee’s performance: An empirical examination of two competing models. Emerald group Publishing Limited, 36(5), 661-683.
Wilderom, C. P. M., Glunk, U., & Maslowski, R. (2000), Organizational culture as a predictor of organizational performance, in Ashkanasy, N. M., Wilderom, C. P. M., Peterson, M. F. (Eds.). Organizational Culture and Climate, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 193-209.
Yin, R. (2003). Case study research design and methods (3rd Eds.). Thousand Oak: Sage Publication.
Yukl, G. (2008). Leadership in organizations (3rd Eds.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Yukl, G., O'Donnell, M., and T. Taber. (2009). Influence of leader behaviors on the leader-member exchange relationship. Journal of Managerial Psychology 24 (4): 289-299.
Yuki, G. (2002). Leadership in organizations. (5th Eds.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).