Cultural Changes and Food Production
Keywords:Culture changes, food production, work-related values.
AbstractThis paper explores the relationship between work-related values and food production modes. Following cultural materialism theory in anthropology, we hypothesize that the collective programming of mind began when humans adopted different methods to produce food. Using food production data in the 1970s and in the 1990s, we found that per capita production of milk was positively related to Hofstede’s individualism and negatively related to power distance. Meanwhile, the production of fruits and vegetables in the 1970s was directly related to uncertainty avoidance. Similar results were found when applying the GLOBE cultural dimensions in the 1990s although technology development and globalization have weakened the relationship between food production and culture. The policy implications of the findings are discussed within the context of globalization of food industry.
Alesina, A., Giuliano, P., and Nunn, N. 2013.On the origins of gender roles: Women and the plough. Quarterly Journal of Economics128: 469-530
Andersen, R. and Wadel, C. 1972. North Atlantic Fishermen: Anthropological Essays on Modern Fishing. Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Asche, F. and Smith, M. 2010. Trade and fisheries: Key issues for the World Trade Organization. WTO Staff Working Paper ERSD-2010-03
Blumberg, R. L. and Winch, R. F. 1972.Soceital complexity and familial complexity: Evidence for the curvilinear hypothesis. American Journal of Sociology 77: 898-920
Danowski, F. 1980. Fishermen’s wives: Coping with an extraordinary occupation. Marine Bulletin 37: 78
Dyson-Hudson, R. 1980.Toward a general theory of pastoralism and social stratification. In Newsletter of the Commission on Nomadic Peoples, No.7: 1-7
Dyson-Hudson, R. and Dyson-Hudson, N. 1980. Nomadic pastoralism. Annual Review of Anthropology 9: 15-61
Feder, G., Just, R. and Zilberman, D. 1985. Adoption of agricultural innovations in developing countries: a survey. Economic Development and Cultural Change 33(2): 255-298
Ferraro, G. 2008. Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective, 7th edition, Thomson Higher Education, Belmont, CA
Gardner, B. 1992. Changing economic perspectives on the farm problem. Journal of Economic Literature 30 (1): 62-101
Guiso, L., Sapienza, P. and Zingales, L. 2003. People’s opium? Religion and economic attitudes, Journal of Monetary Economics 50: 225-282
Hadjigeorgalis, E. 2005. The U.S. dairy industry and international trade in dairy products. Technical Report #42. New Mexico State University
Heuer, M, Cummings, JL. and Hutabaratt, W. 1999. Cultural stability or change among managers in Indonesia? Journal of International Business Studies 30(3): 599-610
Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications
__________ 2001. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations (2nded.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
__________ 2006. What did GLOBE really measure? Researcher’s minds versus respondents’ minds. Journal of International Business Studies 37(6): 882-896
Hofstede, GJ. 2015. Culture’s causes: The next challenge. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal 22(4): 545-569
House, R., Hanges, P., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P., & Gupta, V. 2004. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Huang, S. 2004. Global trade patterns in fruits and vegetables. Agriculture and Trade Report #WRS-04-06, US Department of Agriculture
Huffman, W. 1999. The labor intensity and technology of agriculture: California versus other states, 1960-96. Changing Face vol.5 number 4
Kashima, E.S. and Kashima, Y. 1998. Culture and language: the case of cultural dimensions and personal pronoun use. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 29:461-486
Ketter, C. and Arfsten, M. Cultural value dimensions and ethnicity within Kenya. International Business Research 8(12): 69-79
Kirkman, B., Lowe, K. and Gibson, C. 2006. A quarter century of Culture’s Consequences: a review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework, Journal of International Business Studies, 37(3): 285-320
Leung, K., Bhogat, R., Buchan, N., Erez, M. and Gibson, C. (2005) Culture and international business: recent advances and their implications for future research. Journal of International Business Studies 36(4): 357-378
Minkov, M. and Hofstede, G. 2014. Nations versus religions: which has a stronger effect on cultural values at the group level? Management International Review 54: 801-824
Mintz, S. and Du Bois, C. 2002. The anthropology of food and eating. Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 99-119
Morgan, L. 1877. Ancient Society. Holt, New York
Nolan, P. and Lenski, G. 2006. From Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology, Paradigm Publisher, Boulder, Colorado
Olmstead, A. and Rhode, P. The evolution of California agriculture, 1850-2000, in Jerome B. Siebert (ed.), California Agriculture: Dimensions and Issues (University of California Press, 2004), pp.1-28.
Parker, J. 2013. Integrating culture and community into environmental policy: Community tradition and farm size in conservation decision making. Agriculture and Human Values 30: 159-178
Parker, P. 1997. National Culture of the World: A Statistical Reference. Greenwood Press
Phillips, L. 2006. Food and globalization. Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 37-57
Ralston, D.A., Egri, C. P., Stewart, S., Terpstra, R.H. and Yu, K. (1999) ‘Doing business in the 21st century with the new generation of Chinese managers: A study of generational shifts in work values in China’, Journal of International Business Studies 30(2): 415-428
Ronen, S. and Shenkar, O. 1985.Clustering countries on attitudinal dimensions: a review and synthesis. Academy of Management Review 10(3): 435-454
Steward, Julian. 1955. Theory of Culture Change: The Methodology of Multilinear Evolution, University of Illinois Press, Urbana- Champaign, IL
Stulz, R. M. and Williamson, R. 2003. Culture, openness, and finance, Journal of Financial Economics 70: 313-349
Talhelm, T., Zhang, X., Oishi, S., Shimin, C., Duan, D., Lan, X., and Kitayama, S. 2014. Large –scale psychological differences within China explained by rice versus wheat agriculture. Science 344 (9): 603-608
Tang, L. and Koveos, P. 2008. A framework to update Hofstede’s cultural value indices: Economic dynamics and institutional stability. Journal of International Business Studies 39(6): 1045-1063
Taylor, E.B. 1916. Anthropology: An Introduction to the Study of Man and Civilization. Appleton & Co. New York
Tung, R. and Verbeke, A. 2010. Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: Improving the quality of cross-cultural research. Journal of International Business Studies 41 (8): 1259-1274
Von Baeyer, E. 2014. The development and history of horticulture, in World Environmental History edited by Agnoletti, M., Johann, E., and Serneri, S., EOLSS Publisher
Watkins, K. 1996. Free trade and farm fallacies: From the Uruguay round to the World Food Summit. The Ecologist 26(6):244-255
White, L. 1943. Energy and the evolution of culture. American Anthropologist 45(3): 335-356
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).